Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo

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First Name
Pablo Guillermo
Last Name
Pérez González
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 152
  • Publication
    A comprehensive study of NGC 2023 with XMM-Newton and Spitzer*
    (Wiley, 2013-02) López García, M. A.; López Santiago, J.; Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Castro Rubio, Elisa de
    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission of different stellar populations, from very massive stars to brown dwarfs. NGC 2023 is a reflection nebula situated to the south of the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024) and at the edge of the H II region IC 434, which also contains the Horsehead Nebula (Barnard 33). NGC 2023, NGC 2024, Barnard 33 and the surroundings of the O-type supergiant star zeta Ori constitute the south part of the Orion B molecular complex. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of X-ray emitters in the region of NGC 2023 and its surroundings. We combine optical and infrared data to determine physical properties (mass, temperature, luminosity and the presence of accretion discs) of the stars detected in an XMM-Newton observation. This study has allowed us to analyse spectral energy distribution of these stars for the first time and determine their evolutionary stage. Properties of the X-ray emitting plasma of these stars are compared to those found in other nearby star-forming regions. The results indicate that the stars that are being formed in this region have characteristics, in terms of physical properties and luminosity function, similar to those found in the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex.
  • Publication
    Evolution of the anti-truncated stellar profiles of SO galaxies since z=0.6 in the SHARDS survey II. Structural and photometric evolution
    (EDP Sciences S A, 2018-07-05) Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche Moral, Carmen; Beckman, John E.; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lumbreras Calle, Alejandro; Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolás; Barro, Guillermo; Cava, Antonio
    Context. Anti-truncated lenticular galaxies (Type-III S0s) present tight scaling relations between their surface brightness photometric and structural parameters. Although several evolutionary models have been proposed for the formation of these structures, the observations of Type-III S0 galaxies are usually limited to the local Universe. Aims. We aim to compare the properties of Type-III discs in a sample of S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6with those of the local Universe. In this paper, we study the evolution of the photometric and structural scaling relations measured in the rest-frame R-band with z and the possible differences between the rest-frame (B - R) colours of the inner and outer disc profiles. Methods. We make use of a sample of 14 Type-III E/ S0-S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0 : 6 from the GOODS-N field identified and characterised in a previous paper. We study whether or not the correlations found in local Type-III S0 galaxies were present similar to 6 Gyr ago. We analyse the distribution of the surface brightness characteristic parameters (R-break, mu(break), h(i), h(o), mu(0;) i and mu(0; o)) as a function of the stellar mass and look to see if there is a significant change with z. We also derive their rest-frame (B - R) colour profiles. Finally, we compare these results with the predictions from a grid of SSP models. Results. We find that the inner and outer scale-lengths of Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.4 < z < 0.6follow compatible trends and scaling relations with those observed in local S0 galaxies as a function of the break radius, R-break. We do not detect any significant differences between the location of R-break between z similar to 0.6 and z similar to 0 for a fixed stellar mass of the object, whereas the surface brightness at the break radius mu(break) is similar to 1.5 mag arcsec 2 dimmer in the local Universe than at z similar to 0.6 for a fixed stellar mass. We find no significant differences in the (B - R) colour between the inner and outer profiles of the Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6. Conclusions. In contrast to Type-II (down-bending) profiles, the anti-truncated surface brightness profiles of S0 galaxies present compatible R-break values and scaling relations during the last 6 Gyr. This result and the similarity of the colours of the inner and outer discs point to a highly scalable and stable formation process, probably more related to gravitational and dynamical processes than to the evolution of stellar populations.
  • Publication
    Statistical stellar mass corrections for high-z galaxies observed with JWST broadband filters due to template degeneracies
    (IOP Publishing LTD, 2019-04) Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K.I.; Colina, L.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Grogin, N.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; van der Werf, P.
    Stellar masses in future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) deep blank fields will be mainly derived by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with theoretical galaxy templates. We investigate the uncertainties and biases of the stellar masses derived by using the LePhare code for SED fitting and the Yggdrasil theoretical templates. We consider a sample of mock galaxies at z = 7–10 with mock JWST observations with S/N_(F150W) ≥ 10. Our goal is to provide a list of statistical stellar mass corrections to include on the stellar mass derivation for different output galaxy properties and JWST filter combinations to correct for template degeneracies. Median statistical stellar mass corrections vary from −0.83 to 0.87 dex, while 25% (75%) quartiles range from −0.83 (−0.67) to 0.51 (0.88) dex, depending on filter combinations and galaxy models. The most challenging cases are galaxies with nebular emission lines, especially the ones that are wrongly identified as galaxies without, relative dust-free galaxies, and galaxies with small metallicities (i.e., Z = 1/50 Zꙩ). The stellar mass estimation of galaxies correctly identified without emission lines is generally fine, except at z = 10 when considering only the eight NIRCam bands, which make the MIRI bands very valuable. We have tested our stellar mass corrections using the public JAGUAR galaxy catalog, deriving that the average discrepancy in the recovered stellar mass distribution decreases by 20%–50% at z > 7 after the correction. We found that without the stellar mass corrections, the number of low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^(7) Mꙩ) is overestimated, which can potentially lead to systematic errors in the calculation of the galaxy stellar mass function faint-end slope at high z.
  • Publication
    Infrared color selection of massive galaxies at z > 3
    (American Astronomical Society, 2016-01-10) Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; otros, ...
    We introduce a new color selection technique to identify high-redshift, massive galaxies that are systematically missed by Lyman-break selection. The new selection is based on the H160 (H) and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm bands, specifically H – [4.5] > 2.25 mag. These galaxies, called "HIEROs," include two major populations that can be separated with an additional J − H color. The populations are massive and dusty star-forming galaxies at z > 3 (JH – blue) and extremely dusty galaxies at z ≲ 3 (JH – red). The 350 arcmin^2 of the GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields with the deepest Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared and IRAC data contain as many as 285 HIEROs down to [4.5] < 24 mag. Inclusion of the most extreme HIEROs, not even detected in the H band, makes this selection particularly complete for the identification of massive high-redshift galaxies. We focus here primarily on JH – blue(z>3) HIEROs, which have a median photometric redshift ~ 4.4 and stellar mass M_* ~ 10^10.6 M_⨀ and are much fainter in the rest-frame UV than similarly massive Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). Their star formation rates (SFRs), derived from their stacked infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), reach ~240 M_⨀ yr^-1, leading to a specific SFR, sSFR ≡ SFR/M_* ~ 4.2 Gyr^-1, suggesting that the sSFRs for massive galaxies continue to grow at z > 2 but at a lower growth rate than from z = 0 to z = 2. With a median half-light radius of 2 kpc, including ~20% as compact as quiescent (QS) galaxies at similar redshifts, JH – blue HIEROs represent perfect star-forming progenitors of the most massive M_* ≳ 10^11.2 M_⨀) compact QS galaxies at z ~ 3 and have the right number density. HIEROs make up ~60% of all galaxies with M_* > 10^10.5 M_⨀ identified at z > 3 from their photometric redshifts. This is five times more than LBGs with nearly no overlap between the two populations. While HIEROs make up 15%–25% of the total SFR density at z ~ 4 –5, they completely dominate the SFR density taking place in M_* > 10^10.5 M_⨀ galaxies, and HIEROs are therefore crucial to understanding the very early phase of massive galaxy formation.
  • Publication
    [C II] and 12^CO(1-0) emission maps in HLSJ091828.6+514223: a strongly lensed interacting system AT z = 5.24
    (American Astronomical Society, 2014-03-01) Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; otros, ...
    We present Submillimeter Array [C II] 158 μm and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 12^CO(1-0) line emission maps for the bright, lensed, submillimeter source at z = 5.2430 behind A 773: HLSJ091828.6+514223 (HLS0918). We combine these measurements with previously reported line profiles, including multiple 12^CO rotational transitions, [C I], water, and [N II], providing some of the best constraints on the properties of the interstellar medium in a galaxy at z > 5. HLS0918 has a total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L_FIR(8–1000 μm) = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10^14 L_☉ μ^–1, where the total magnification μ_total = 8.9 ± 1.9, via a new lens model from the [C II] and continuum maps. Despite a HyLIRG luminosity, the FIR continuum shape resembles that of a local LIRG. We simultaneously fit all of the observed spectral line profiles, finding four components that correspond cleanly to discrete spatial structures identified in the maps. The two most redshifted spectral components occupy the nucleus of a massive galaxy, with a source-plane separation <1 kpc. The reddest dominates the continuum map (demagnified L_FIR, component = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10^13 L_☉) and excites strong water emission in both nuclear components via a powerful FIR radiation field from the intense star formation. A third star-forming component is most likely a region of a merging companion (ΔV ~ 500 km s^–1) exhibiting generally similar gas properties. The bluest component originates from a spatially distinct region and photodissociation region analysis suggests that it is lower density, cooler, and forming stars less vigorously than the other components. Strikingly, it has very strong [N II] emission, which may suggest an ionized, molecular outflow. This comprehensive view of gas properties and morphology in HLS0918 previews the science possible for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies once ALMA attains full sensitivity.
  • Publication
    The minor role of gas-rich major mergers in the rise of intermediate-mass early types at z ≤ 1
    (American Astronomical Society, 2010-02-20) López Sanjuan, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Barro, Guillermo; García Dabó, César Enrique; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime
    We study the evolution of galaxy structure since z ~ 1 to the present. From a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South (GOODS-S) multi-band catalog, we define (blue) luminosity- and mass-weighted samples, limited by MB ≤ –20 and M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉, comprising 1122 and 987 galaxies, respectively. We extract early-type (ET; E/S0/Sa) and late-type (LT; Sb-Irr) subsamples by their position in the concentration-asymmetry plane, in which galaxies exhibit a clear bimodality. We find that the ET fraction, f ET, rises with cosmic time, with a corresponding decrease in the LT fraction, f LT, in both luminosity- and mass-selected samples. However, the evolution of the comoving number density is very different: the decrease in the total number density of MB ≤ –20 galaxies since z = 1 is due to the decrease in the LT population, which accounts for ~75% of the total star formation rate in the range under study, while the increase in the total number density of M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉ galaxies in the same redshift range is due to the evolution of ETs. This suggests that we need a structural transformation between LT galaxies that form stars actively and ET galaxies in which the stellar mass is located. Comparing the observed evolution with the gas-rich major merger rate in GOODS-S, we infer that only ~20% of the new ET galaxies with M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉ appeared since z ~ 1 can be explained by this kind of mergers, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes may be the driving mechanisms of the structural evolution of intermediate-mass (M sstarf ~ 4 × 1010 M ☉) galaxies since z ~ 1.
  • Publication
    Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. V - Antitruncated stellar discs resulting from major mergers
    (EDP Sciencies, 2014-10) Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche Moral, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Pérez, Cristina; Querejeta, Miguel; Tapia, Trinidad; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Beckman, John
    Context. Lenticular galaxies (S0s) are more likely to host antitruncated (Type III) stellar discs than galaxies of later Hubble types. Major mergers are popularly considered too violent to make these breaks. Aims. We have investigated whether major mergers can result into S0-like remnants with realistic antitruncated stellar discs or not. Methods. We have analysed 67 relaxed S0 and E/S0 remnants resulting from dissipative N-body simulations of major mergers from the GalMer database. We have simulated realistic R-band surface brightness profiles of the remnants to identify those with antitruncated stellar discs. Their inner and outer discs and the breaks have been quantitatively characterized to compare with real data. Results. Nearly 70% of our S0-like remnants are antitruncated, meaning that major mergers that result in S0s have a high probability of producing Type III stellar discs. Our remnants lie on top of the extrapolations of the observational trends (towards brighter magnitudes and higher break radii) in several photometric diagrams, because of the higher luminosities and sizes of the simulations compared to observational samples. In scale-free photometric diagrams, simulations and observations overlap and the remnants reproduce the observational trends, so the physical mechanism after antitruncations is highly scalable. We have found novel photometric scaling relations between the characteristic parameters of the antitruncations in real S0s, which are also reproduced by our simulations. We show that the trends in all the photometric planes can be derived from three basic scaling relations that real and simulated Type III S0s fulfill: h_i ∝ R_brkIII, h_o ∝ R_brkIII, and μ_brkIII ∝ R_brkIII, where h_i and h_o are the scalelengths of the inner and outer discs, and μ_brkIII and R_brkIII are the surface brightness and radius of the breaks. Bars and antitruncations in real S0s are structurally unrelated phenomena according to the studied photometric planes. Conclusions. Major mergers provide a feasible mechanism to form realistic antitruncated S0 galaxies.
  • Publication
    AEGIS-X: deep Chandra imaging of the central Groth Strip
    (University Chicago Press, 2015-09) Barro, Guillermo; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; otros, ...
    We present the results of deep Chandra imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous Chandraobservations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800 ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately 0.29 deg^2. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence; a factor ∼2-3 shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs), but over an area ∼3 times greater than each CDF. We present a catalog of 937 point sources detected in the deep Chandra observations, along with identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multiband counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are available predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is ∼38%. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multiband photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are active galactic nuclei and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of σ = 0.04 and an outlier fraction of approximately 5%, reaching σ = 0.03 with less than 4% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multiwavelength photometry, and redshift catalogs are made publicly available.
  • Publication
    Characterization of active galactic nuclei and their hosts in the extended groth strip: a multiwavelength analysis
    (IOP Publishing ltd, 2009-01) Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Barro, Guillermo; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo
    We have employed a reliable technique of classification of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on the fit of well sampled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with a complete set of AGN and starburst galaxy templates. We have compiled UV, optical, and IR data for a sample of 116 AGNs originally selected for their X-ray and mid-IR emissions (96 with single detections and 20 with double optical counterparts). This is the most complete compilation of multiwavelength data for such a large sample of AGN in the Extended Groth Strip. Through these SEDs, we are able to obtain highly reliable photometric redshifts and to distinguish between pure and host-dominated AGNs. For the objects with unique detection we find that they can be separated into five main groups, namely: Starburst-dominated AGNs (24% of the sample), Starburst-contaminated AGNs (7%), Type-1 AGNs (21%), Type-2 AGNs (24%), and Normal galaxy hosting AGN (24%). We find these groups concentrated at different redshifts: Type-2 AGNs and Normal galaxy hosting AGNs are concentrated at low redshifts, whereas Starburst-dominated AGNs and Type-1 AGNs show a larger span. Correlations between hard/soft X-ray and UV, optical and IR luminosities are reported for the first time for such a sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. For the 20 objects with double detection, the percentage of Starburst-dominated AGNs increases up to 48%.
  • Publication
    The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. VI. Obscured AGN selected as infrared power-law galaxies
    (EDP Sciencies, 2013-08) Castelló Mor, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso Herrero, A.; Mateos, S.; Barcons, X.; Ranalli, P.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Georgantopoulos, I.
    Context. Accretion onto supermassive black holes is believed to occur mostly in obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN). Such objects are proving rather elusive in surveys of distant galaxies, including those at X-ray energies. Aims. Our main goal is to determine whether the revised IRAC criteria of Donley et al. (2012, ApJ, 748, 142; objects with an infrared (IR) power-law spectral shape), are effective at selecting X-ray type-2 AGN (i.e., absorbed N_H > 10^22 cm^-2). Methods. We present the results from the X-ray spectral analysis of 147 AGN selected by cross-correlating the highest spectral quality ultra-deep XMM-Newton and the Spitzer/IRAC catalogues in the Chandra Deep Field South. Consequently it is biased towards sources with high S/N X-ray spectra. In order to measure the amount of intrinsic absorption in these sources, we adopt a simple X-ray spectral model that includes a power-law modified by intrinsic absorption at the redshift of each source and a possible soft X-ray component. Results. We find 21/147 sources to be heavily absorbed but the uncertainties in their obscuring column densities do not allow us to confirm their Compton-Thick nature without resorting to additional criteria. Although IR power-law galaxies are less numerous in our sample than IR non-power-law galaxies (60 versus 87 respectively), we find that the fraction of absorbed (N_H^intr > 10^22 cm^-2) AGN is significantly higher (at about 3 sigma level) for IR-power-law sources (similar to 2/3) than for those sources that do not meet this IR selection criteria (~1/2). This behaviour is particularly notable at low luminosities, but it appears to be present, although with a marginal significance, at all luminosities. Conclusions. We therefore conclude that the IR power-law method is efficient in finding X-ray-absorbed sources. We would then expect that the long-sought dominant population of absorbed AGN is abundant among IR power-law spectral shape sources not detected in X-rays.