Person: Dullo, Bililign
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
PublicationMEGARA, the R=6000-20000 IFU and MOS of GTC(SPIE-Int Soc Optical Engineering, 2018) Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Bouquin, A.; Carbajo, J.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Castillo Morales, África; Esteban San Román, Segundo; López Orozco, José Antonio; Pascual, S.; Picazo, P.; Sánchez Penim, Ainhoa; Velázquez, M.; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Catalán Torrecilla, Cristina; Dullo, Bililign; Pérez González, P.G.; Roca Fábrega, SantiMEGARA is the new generation IFU and MOS optical spectrograph built for the 10.4m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). The project was developed by a consortium led by UCM (Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and UPM (Spain). The instrument arrived to GTC on March 28th 2017 and was successfully integrated and commissioned at the telescope from May to August 2017. During the on-sky commissioning we demonstrated that MEGARA is a powerful and robust instrument that provides on-sky intermediate-to-high spectral resolutions R_(FWHM) ~ 6,000, 12,000 and 20,000 at an unprecedented efficiency for these resolving powers in both its IFU and MOS modes. The IFU covers 12.5 x 11.3 arcsec2 while the MOS mode allows observing up to 92 objects in a region of 3.5 x 3.5 arcmin^(2) . In this paper we describe the instrument main subsystems, including the Folded-Cassegrain unit, the fiber link, the spectrograph, the cryostat, the detector and the control subsystems, and its performance numbers obtained during commissioning where the fulfillment of the instrument requirements is demonstrated. PublicationLeMMINGs – I. The eMERLIN legacy survey of nearby galaxies. 1.5-GHz parsec-scale radio structures and cores(Oxford University Press, 2018-02-09) Dullo, Bililign; Baldi, R.D.; Westcott, J...; otros, ...We present the first data release of high-resolution (≤0.2 arcsec) 1.5-GHz radio images of 103 nearby galaxies from the Palomar sample, observed with the eMERLIN array, as part of the LeMMINGs survey. This sample includes galaxies which are active (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions [LINER] and Seyfert) and quiescent (H II galaxies and absorption line galaxies, ALGs), which are reclassified based upon revised emission-line diagrams. We detect radio emission ≳0.2 mJy for 47/103 galaxies (22/34 for LINERS, 4/4 for Seyferts, 16/51 for H II galaxies, and 5/14 for ALGs) with radio sizes typically of ≲100 pc. We identify the radio core position within the radio structures for 41 sources. Half of the sample shows jetted morphologies. The remaining half shows single radio cores or complex morphologies. LINERs show radio structures more core-brightened than Seyferts. Radio luminosities of the sample range from 1032 to 1040 erg s−1: LINERs and H II galaxies show the highest and lowest radio powers, respectively, while ALGs and Seyferts have intermediate luminosities. We find that radio core luminosities correlate with black hole (BH) mass down to ∼107 M⊙, but a break emerges at lower masses. Using [O III] line luminosity as a proxy for the accretion luminosity, active nuclei and jetted H II galaxies follow an optical Fundamental Plane of BH activity, suggesting a common disc–jet relationship. In conclusion, LINER nuclei are the scaled-down version of FR I radio galaxies; Seyferts show less collimated jets; H II galaxies may host weak active BHs and/or nuclear star-forming cores; and recurrent BH activity may account for ALG properties. PublicationLeMMINGs III. The e-MERLIN legacy survey of the Palomar sample: exploring the origin of nuclear radio emission in active and inactive galaxies through the [O III] - radio connection(Wiley, 2021-12) Dullo, Bililign; otros, ...What determines the nuclear radio emission in local galaxies? To address this question, we combine optical [O III] line emission, robust black hole (BH) mass estimates, and high-resolution e-MERLIN 1 .5-GHz data, from the LeMMINGs survey, of a statistically complete sample of 280 nearby optically active (LINER and Seyfert) and inactive [H II and absorption line galaxies (ALGs)] galaxies. Using [O III] luminosity (L-[o iii]) as a proxy for the accretion power, local galaxies follow distinct sequences in the optical-radio planes of BH activity, which suggest different origins of the nuclear radio emission for the optical classes. The 1 .5-GHz radio luminosity of their parsec-scale cores (L-core) is found to scale with BH mass (M-BH) and [O III] luminosity. Below M-BH similar to 10(6.5 )M(circle dot), stellar processes from non-jetted H II galaxies dominate with (Lcore) proportional to M(BH)(0.61 +/- 0.33 )and L-core proportional to L-[Oiii](0.79 +/- 0.30). Above M-BH similar to 10(6.5 )M(circle dot), accretion-driven processes dominate with L-core proportional to M(BH)(1.5-1.65 )and L-core proportional to L-[Oiii](0.99-1.31) for active galaxies: radio-quiet/loud LINERs, Seyferts, and jetted H II galaxies always display (although low) signatures of radio-emitting BH activity, with L-1.5GHz greater than or similar to 10(19.8) W Hz(-1) and M-BH greater than or similar to 10(7) M-circle dot, on a broad range of Eddington-scaled accretion rates ((m)over dot). Radio-quiet and radio-loud LINERs are powered by low-(m)over dot discs launching sub-relativistic and relativistic jets, respectively. Low-power slow jets and disc/corona winds from moderately high to high-(m)over dot discs account for the compact and edge-brightened jets of Seyferts, respectively. Jetted H II galaxies may host weakly active BHs. Fuel-starved BHs and recurrent activity account for ALG properties. In conclusion, specific accretion-ejection states of active BHs determine the radio production and the optical classification of local active galaxies. PublicationFirst scientific observations with MEGARA at GTC(Spie-Int Soc Optical Engineering, 2018) Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Bouquin, A.; Carbajo, J.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Castillo Morales, África; Esteban San Román, Segundo; López Orozco, José Antonioi; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio; Picazo, P.; Sánchez Penim, Ainhoa; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Catalán Torrecilla, Cristina; Dullo, Bililign; Pérez González, P.G.On June 25th 2017, the new intermediate-resolution optical IFU and MOS of the 10.4-m GTC had its first light. As part of the tests carried out to verify the performance of the instrument in its two modes (IFU & MOS) and 18 spectral setups (identical number of VPHs with resolutions R=6000-20000 from 0.36 to 1 micron) a number of astronomical objects were observed. These observations show that MEGARA@GTC is called to fill a niche of high-throughput, intermediate resolution IFU & MOS observations of extremely-faint narrow-lined objects. Lyman-α absorbers, star-forming dwarfs or even weak absorptions in stellar spectra in our Galaxy or in the Local Group can now be explored to a new level. Thus, the versatility of MEGARA in terms of observing modes and spectral resolution and coverage will allow GTC to go beyond current observational limits in either depth or precision for all these objects. The results to be presented in this talk clearly demonstrate the potential of MEGARA in this regard. PublicationLeMMINGs - IV. The X-ray properties of a statistically complete sample of the nuclei in active and inactive galaxies from the Palomar sample(Oxford University Press/Royal Astronomical Society, 2021-11-17) Dullo, Bililign; otros, ...All 280 of the statistically complete Palomar sample of nearby (<120 Mpc) galaxies delta > 20 degrees have been observed at 1.5 GHz as part of the LeMMINGs e-MERLIN legacy survey. IIere, we present Chandra X-ray observations of the nuclei of 213 of these galaxies, including a statistically complete sub-set of 113 galaxies in the declination range 40 degrees PublicationSpatially resolved analysis of neutralwWinds, stars, and ionized gas kinematics with MEGARA/GTC: new insights on the nearby galaxy UGC 10205(IOP Publishing Ltd, 2020-02-06) Catalán Torrecilla, C.; Castillo Morales, África; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Chamorro Cazorla, Mario; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Dullo, BililignWe present a comprehensive analysis of the multiphase structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the stellar kinematics in the edge-on nearby galaxy UGC 10205 using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data taken with MultiEspectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía (MEGARA) at the GTC. We explore both the neutral and the ionized gas phases using the interstellar Na I D doublet absorption (LR−V setup, R ∼ 6000) and the Hα emission line (HR−R setup, R ∼ 18000), respectively. The high-resolution data show the complexity of the Hα emission-line profile revealing the detection of up to three kinematically distinct gaseous components. Despite of this fact, a thin-disk model is able to reproduce the bulk of the ionized gas motions in the central regions of UGC 10205. The use of asymmetric drift corrections is needed to reconciliate the ionized and the stellar velocity rotation curves. We also report the detection of outflowing neutral gas material blueshifted by ∼ 87 km s^(−1) . The main physical properties that describe the observed outflow are a total mass M_(out) = (4.55 ± 0.06) × 10^(7) Mʘ and a coldgas mass outflow rate M_(out) = 0.78 0.03 Mʘ yr^(−1) . This work points out the necessity of exploiting highresolution IFS data to understand the multiphase components of the ISM and the multiple kinematical components in the central regions of nearby galaxies. PublicationHigh-resolution MEGARA Integral-field Unit Spectroscopy and Structural Analysis of a Fast-rotating, Disky Bulge in NGC 7025(American Astronomical Society, 2019-01-20) Dullo, Bililign; Chamorro Cazorla, Mario; Gil de Paz, Armando; Castillo Morales, María África; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Iglesias Paramo, Jorge; Cedazo, Raquel; García Vargas, María Luisa; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Pérez Calpena, AnaDisky bulges in spiral galaxies are commonly thought to form out of disk materials (mainly) via bar-driven secular processes. They are structurally and dynamically distinct from “classical bulges,” which are built in violent merger events. We use high-resolution GTC/MEGARA integral-field unit spectroscopic observations of the Sa galaxy NGC 7025, obtained during the MEGARA commissioning run, together with detailed 1D and 2D decompositions of this galaxy’s Sloan Digital Sky Survey i-band data to investigate the formation of its disky (bulge) component, which makes up ∼30% of the total galaxy light. With a Sérsic index n ~ 1.80 0.24, a half-light radius R_(e) ~ 1.70 0.43 kpc, and stellar mass M_(*) ~ (4.34 1.70) x 10^(10)M_(☉), this bulge dominates the galaxy light distribution in the inner R ~ 15 (∼4.7 kpc). Measuring the spins (λ) and ellipticities (Є) enclosed within nine different circular apertures with radii R ≤ R_(e), we show that the bulge, which exhibits a spin track of outwardly rising λ and Є, is a fast rotator for all the apertures considered. Our findings suggest that this inner disky component is a pseudo-bulge, consistent with the stellar and dust spiral patterns seen in the galaxy down to the innermost regions but in contrast to the classical bulge interpretation favored in the past. We propose that a secular process involving the tightly wound stellar spiral arms of NGC 7025 may be driving gas and stars out of the disk into the inner regions of the galaxy, building up the massive pseudo-bulge. PublicationThe nuclear activity and central structure of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5322(Oxford University Press, 2018-01-10) Dullo, Bililign; Knapen, Johan H.; Williams, David R. A.; Beswick, Robert J.; Bendo, George; Baldi, Ranieri D.; Argo, Megan; McHardy, Ian M.; Muxlow, Tom; Westcott, J.We have analysed a new high-resolution e-MERLIN 1.5 GHz radio continuum map together with HST and SDSS imaging of NGC 5322, an elliptical galaxy hosting radio jets, aiming to understand the galaxy’s central structure and its connection to the nuclear activity. We decomposed the composite HST + SDSS surface brightness profile of the galaxy into an inner stellar disc, a spheroid, and an outer stellar halo. Past works showed that this embedded disc counter-rotates rapidly with respect to the spheroid. The HST images reveal an edge-on nuclear dust disc across the centre, aligned along the major-axis of the galaxy and nearly perpendicular to the radio jets. After careful masking of this dust disc, we find a central stellar mass deficit Mdef in the spheroid, scoured by SMBH binaries with final mass MBH such that Mdef/MBH ∼ 1.3–3.4. We propose a three-phase formation scenario for NGC 5322, where a few (2–7) ‘dry’ major mergers involving SMBHs built the spheroid with a depleted core. The cannibalism of a gas-rich satellite subsequently creates the faint counter-rotating disc and funnels gaseous material directly on to the AGN, powering the radio core with a brightness temperature of TB, core ∼ 4.5 × 107 K and the low-power radio jets (Pjets ∼ 7.04 × 1020 W Hz−1), which extend ∼1.6 kpc. The outer halo can later grow via minor mergers and the accretion of tidal debris. The low-luminosity AGN/jet-driven feedback may have quenched the late-time nuclear star formation promptly, which could otherwise have replenished the depleted core. PublicationLeMMINGs - II. The e-MERLIN legacy survey of nearby galaxies. The deepest radio view of the Palomar sample on parsec scale(Oxford Univ. Press, 2021-02) Dullo, BililignWe present the second data release of high-resolution (≤0.2 arcsec) 1.5-GHz radio images of 177 nearby galaxies from the Palomar sample, observed with the e-MERLIN array, as part of the Legacy e-MERLIN Multi-band Imaging of Nearby Galaxies Sample (LeMMINGs) survey. Together with the 103 targets of the first LeMMINGs data release, this represents a complete sample of 280 local active (LINER and Seyfert) and inactive galaxies (H II galaxies and absorption line galaxies, ALG). This large program is the deepest radio survey of the local Universe, >̰ 10^(17.6) W Hz^(−1), regardless of the host and nuclear type: we detect radio emission >̰ 0.25 mJy beam^(−1) for 125/280 galaxies (44.6 per cent) with sizes of typically <̰ 100 pc. Of those 125, 106 targets show a core which coincides within 1.2 arcsec with the optical nucleus. Although we observed mostly cores, around one third of the detected galaxies features jetted morphologies. The detected radio core luminosities of the sample range between ∼10^(34) and 10^(40) erg s^(−1). LINERs and Seyferts are the most luminous sources, whereas H II galaxies are the least. LINERs show FR I-like core-brightened radio structures while Seyferts reveal the highest fraction of symmetric morphologies. The majority of H II galaxies have single radio core or complex extended structures, which probably conceal a nuclear starburst and/or a weak active nucleus (seven of them show clear jets). ALGs, which are typically found in evolved ellipticals, although the least numerous, exhibit on average the most luminous radio structures, similar to LINERs. PublicationThe most massive galaxies with large depleted cores: structural parameter relations and black hole masses(IOP Publishing, 2019-11-22) Dullo, BililignLuminous spheroids (M_(v) ≲ −21.50 ± 0.75 mag) contain partially depleted cores with sizes (R_(b)) typically 0.02–0.5 kpc. However, galaxies with R_(b) > 0.5 kpc are rare and poorly understood. Here, we perform detailed decompositions of the composite surface brightness profiles, extracted from archival Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based images, of 12 extremely luminous "large-core" galaxies that have R_(b) > 0.5 kpc and M_(v) ≲ −23.50 ± 0.10 mag, fitting a core-Sérsic model to the galaxy spheroids. Using 28 "normal-core" (i.e., R_(b) < 0.5 kpc) galaxies and one "large-core" (i.e., R_(b) > 0.5 kpc) galaxy from the literature, we constructed a final sample of 41 core-Sérsic galaxies. We find that large-core spheroids (with stellar masses M_(*) ≳ 10^(12)M☉) are not simple high-mass extensions of the less luminous normal-core spheroids having M_(*) ∼ 8 × 10^(10)–10^(12)M☉. While the two types follow the same strong relations between the spheroid luminosity L_(v) and R_(b) (R_(b)∝ L_(v)^(1.38±0.13), and the spheroid half-light radius R_(e) (R_(e) ∝ L_(v)^(1.8±0.13), for ellipticals plus Brightest Cluster Galaxies), we discover a break in the core-Sérsic σ–L_(v) relation occurring at M_(v) ∼ −23.50 ± 0.10 mag. Furthermore, we find a strong log-linear R_(b)–M_(BH) relation for the 11 galaxies in the sample with directly determined supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses M_(BH)—3/11 galaxies are large-core galaxies—such that R_(b)∝ M_(BH)^( 0.83 ± 0.10) . However, for the large-core galaxies the SMBH masses estimated from the M_(BH)–σ and core-Sérsic M_(BH)–L relations are undermassive, by up to a factor of 40, relative to expectations from their large Rb values, confirming earlier results. Our findings suggest that large-core galaxies harbor overmassive SMBHs (M_(BH) ≳ 10^(10) M☉), considerably (∼3.7–15.6σ and ∼0.6–1.7σ) larger than expectations from the spheroid σ and L, respectively. We suggest that the R_(b) –M_(BH) relation can be used to estimate SMBH masses in the most massive galaxies.