Person: Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Psicobiología y Metodología en Ciencias del Comportamiento
Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento
Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
- PublicationReactive and proactive agression and its justification in inmates(2012) Ramirez, J. Martin; Millana Cuevas, Luis; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; González Cieza, Luis
- PublicationUna aproximación al Trabajo Social desde la óptica de la Psicología positiva (virtudes y fortalezas)(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2013) Jiménez Rodriguez, Virginia; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Puente Ferreras, AníbalLa Psicología positiva es una ciencia social de desarrollo relativamente reciente que analiza las bases del bienestar psicológico a partir de las fortalezas y virtudes de cada individuo y de sus potencialidades de influir en los otros para el logro de la plenitud y desarrollo personal. En el marco de la Psicología positiva se aplicó el test VIA-IS a 186 estudiantes de primer curso de Grado en Trabajo Social en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid durante el curso 2011-2012. El objetivo de la presente investigación era establecer el perfil de virtudes y fortalezas que el estudiante de Grado considera claves en su futuro desempeño como trabajador social. Las virtudes de Humanidad y Justicia fueron las que se consideraron más relevantes por parte de los estudiantes, tal y como se esperaba, puesto que estas virtudes son básicas a la hora de influir en la voluntad de otras personas, desde el respeto de la individualidad del usuario, hacia un estado de bienestar (Peterson & Seligman, 2004)
- PublicationA Machine Learning Approach for Studying the Comorbidities of Complex Diagnoses(MDPI, 2019) Sánchez Rico, Marina; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús MaríaThe study of diagnostic associations entails a large number of methodological problems regarding the application of machine learning algorithms, collinearity and wide variability being some of the most prominent ones. To overcome these, we propose and tested the usage of uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP), a very recent, popular dimensionality reduction technique. We showed its effectiveness by using it on a large Spanish clinical database of patients diagnosed with depression, to whom we applied UMAP before grouping them using a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. By extensively studying its behavior and results, validating them with purely unsupervised metrics, we show that they are consistent with well-known relationships, which validates the applicability of UMAP to advance the study of comorbidities.
- PublicationDeveloping Multidimensional Likert Scales using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items(SAGE, 2015-01-13) Asún, Rodrigo A.; Rdz-Navarro, Karina; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús MaríaThis study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing fourpoint Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted least squares and unweighted least squares estimations using items polychoric correlation matrices are compared. Two hundred and ten conditions were simulated in a Monte Carlo study considering: one to three factor structures (either, independent and correlated in two levels), medium or low quality of items, three different levels of item asymmetry and five sample sizes. Results showed that IFA procedures achieve equivalent and accurate parameter estimates; in contrast, FA procedures yielded biased parameter estimates. Therefore, we do not recommend classical FA under the conditions considered. Minimum requirements for achieving accurate results using IFA procedures are discussed.
- PublicationAssociation between benzodiazepine receptor agonist use and mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19: a multicentre observational study(Cambridge University Press, 2022-03-30) Hoertel, N.; Sánchez Rico, M.; Gulbins, E.; Kornhuber, J.; Vernet, R.; Beeker, N.; Neuraz, A.; Blanco, C.; Olfson, M.; Airagnes, G.; Lemogne, C.; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Arnaout, M.; Cougoule, C.; Meneton, P.; Limosin, F.Aims To examine the association between benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use and mortality in patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods A multicentre observational study was performed at Greater Paris University hospitals. The sample involved 14 381 patients hospitalised for COVID-19. A total of 686 (4.8%) inpatients received a BZRA at hospital admission at a mean daily diazepam-equivalent dose of 19.7 mg (standard deviation (S.D.) = 25.4). The study baseline was the date of admission, and the primary endpoint was death. We compared this endpoint between patients who received BZRAs and those who did not in time-to-event analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidities and other medications. The primary analysis was a Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting (IPW). Results Over a mean follow-up of 14.5 days (S.D. = 18.1), the primary endpoint occurred in 186 patients (27.1%) who received BZRAs and in 1134 patients (8.3%) who did not. There was a significant association between BZRA use and increased mortality both in the crude analysis (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.74–3.74; p < 0.01) and in the IPW analysis (HR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.31–1.98, p < 0.01), with a significant dose-dependent relationship (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.08–2.22; p = 0.02). This association remained significant in sensitivity analyses. Exploratory analyses indicate that most BZRAs may be associated with an increased mortality among patients hospitalised for COVID-19, except for diazepam, which may be associated with a reduced mortality compared with any other BZRA treatment. Conclusions BZRA use may be associated with an increased mortality among patients hospitalised for COVID-19, suggesting the potential benefit of decreasing dose or tapering off gradually these medications when possible.
- PublicationAggression, Pleasure, and Cognitive Dissonance(Bentham Open, 2014) Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Martín Ramírez, J.The relationship between aggression, pleasure and decision-making is analyzed applying a mediation model of structural equation modeling (SEM). The study explored it in two samples of similar age: young offenders and university students. A close relationship between aggression and pleasure was found in both populations. But, whereas in the case of university students, this congruence leads to a normal or adjusted behavior, in the case of young offenders, however, a mismatched evaluation of conflict and provocation leads them to make unacceptable violence decisions.
- PublicationIndividual differences in anger reaction to noise(2004) Ramirez , J. Martin; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Santisteban Requena, CarmenA review of the literature demonstrates an association between noise and anger. It is hypothesised, however, that this association would not be the same for every subject, but depend on a large range of psychobiological differences between individuals, dependent on age, sex, and noise sensitivity of each subject. The aim of this study was to investigate these eventual individual differences in how the subjective sensitivity to noise is associated to different dimensions of anger in adolescents of different age and of both sexes. Methods: For this purpose two selfreport instruments were chosen: the Sensitivity to Noise test (SENSIT) (Santisteban, 1990, 1992) and the State-Trait Anger expression Inventory (STAXI) (Spielberger, 1988). Results: showed: a) a globally significant correlationship between sensitivity to noise and the different anger aspects: feelings (in anger state), temperament (in trait anger), and internal expression (in anger expression); and b) different characteristics according to the psychobiological peculiarities of each subject (subjective sensitivity to noise, age, sex). Conclusions: in accordance to the hypothesis, the present results suggest that noise may act as a stressor causing unwanted aversive changes in an affective state, such as anger; b) that these changes are related to several psychobiological characteristics of the subject, such as age, sex, and individual sensitivity to noise; and c) that noise sensitivity, measured by SENSIT, may be used as a good predictor of anger.
- PublicationJustification of interpersonal aggression in Hong Kong and Spain(Benthan, 2011-09-23) Ramirez, J. Martin; Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Millana Cuevas, Luis ClementeThis study reports the degrees of approval for different aggressive acts in a number of instrumental and emotional situations. A nationally-adapted version of the Lagerspetz and Westman questionnaire  was administered to 332 university students of both sexes in Spain and Hong Kong. Respondents had to indicate levels of justification of several aggressive acts of different quality and intensity in the context of different social justifications. Our results replicated the general findings of previous research in other cultures: in both samples, more drastic forms of aggression (e.g., killing, torture) were less accepted than non-dangerous forms of such behavior (e.g., hindering, being ironic); aggressive acts more socially justified (in terms of protection of self or other) were clearly more accepted than others with no such justification (problems of communication); and instrumental-motivated aggression was higher justified than emotional-motivated aggression. Some differences in the level of acceptance according to the sex of the participants were found: women were more prone to a higher acceptance of acts and situations more related to emotion. Although both sexes justified aggression in a higher degree for instrumentally motivated situations than for emotional ones, males showed a higher acceptance than females for instrumental situations and a lower one than females for emotional ones. There were also some minor culturally bound differences in these attitudes: Spaniards accepted less than HK students aggression in emotional situations, specially for the cases of punishment and lack of communication, but more emotional acts, such as rage and shouting. Thus, patterns of moral approval of various kinds of aggressive acts are in a large part common to both cultures. Findings also confirmed a two-factor solution and the respective predictive power of justifications for aggression in instrumental vs. emotional motivated situations. The reliability and validity of this brief self-report have been further established by the present study, paving the way for future studies to measure instrumental and emotional aggression.
- PublicationBest Alternatives to Cronbach's Alpha Reliability in Realistic Conditions: Congeneric and Asymmetrical Measurements(HolmesFinch, 2016-05-26) Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; Trizano Hermosilla, ItaloThe Cronbach's alpha is the most widely used method for estimating internal consistency reliability. This procedure has proved very resistant to the passage of time, even if its limitations are well documented and although there are better options as omega coefficient or the different versions of glb, with obvious advantages especially for applied research in which the ítems differ in quality or have skewed distributions. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulation, the performance of these reliability coefficients under a one-dimensional model is evaluated in terms of skewness and no tau-equivalence. The results show that omega coefficient is always better choice than alpha and in the presence of skew items is preferable to use omega and glb coefficients even in small samples.
- PublicationClinical and sociodemographic Factors associated with cognitive impairment and neuroprotection in diabetes patients(2015) Valiente Barroso, Carlos; Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; García García, Emilio