Vindel Catena, Elena

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First Name
Last Name
Vindel Catena
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Mineralogía y Petrología
Cristalografía y Mineralogía
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Riópar non-sulfide Zn-(Fe-Pb) deposits (Prebetic Zone, SE Spain)
    (Elsevier, 2016) Navarro Ciurana, Didac; Campos Quispe, Luis Alberto; Cardellach, Esteve; Vindel Catena, Elena; Gómez Gras, David; Griera, Albert; Corbella, Mercè
    The present paper reports the first detailed petrological and geochemical study of non-sulfide Zn–(Fe–Pb) deposits in the Riópar area (Prebetic Zone of the Mesozoic Betic Basin, SE Spain), constraining the origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids. In Riópar both sulfide and non-sulfide Zn–(Fe–Pb) (“calamine”) ores are hosted in hydrothermally dolomitized Lower Cretaceous limestones. The hypogene sulfides comprise sphalerite, marcasite and minor galena. Calamine ores consist of Zn-carbonates (smithsonite and scarce hydrozincite), associated with abundant Fe-(hydr)oxides (goethite and hematite) and minor Pb-carbonates (cerussite). Three smithsonite types have been recognized: i) Sm-I consists of brown anhedral microcrystalline aggregates as encrustations replacing sphalerite; ii) Sm-II refers to brownish subhedral aggregates of rugged appearance related with Fe oxihydroxides in the surface crystals, which replace extensively sphalerite; and iii) Sm-III smithsonite appears as coarse grayish botryoidal aggregates in microkarstic cavities and porosity. Hydrozincite is scarce and appears as milky white botryoidal encrustations in cavities replacing smithsonite. Also, two types of cerussite have been identified: i) Cer-I cerussite consists of fine crystals replacing galena along cleavage planes and crystal surfaces; and ii) Cer-II conforms fine botryoidal crystals found infill porosity. Calcite and thin gypsum encrustations were also recognized. The field and petrographic observations of the Riópar non-sulfide Zn–(Fe–Pb) revealed two successive stages of supergene ore formation under meteoric fluid processes: i) “gossan” and “red calamine” formation in the uppermost parts of the ore with deposition of Fe-(hydr)oxides and Zn- and Pb-carbonates (Sm-I, Sm-II and Cer-I), occurring as direct replacements of Zn–Pb sulfides; and ii) “gray calamine” ore formation with deposition of Sm-III, Cer-II and hydrozincite infilling microkarst cavities and porosity. The stable isotope variation of Riópar smithsonite is very similar to those obtained in other calamine-ore deposits around the world. Their C–O isotope data (δ18O: +27.8 to +29.6‰ V-SMOW; δ13C: −6.3 to +0.4‰ V-PDB), puts constrains on: i) the oxidizing fluid type, which was of meteoric origin with temperatures of 12 to 19 °C, suggesting a supergene weathering process for the calamine-ore formation under a temperate climate; and ii) the carbon source, that resulted from mixing between two CO2 components derived from: the dissolution of host-dolomite (13C-enriched source) and vegetation decomposition (13C-depleted component).
  • Publication
    Dolostone origin in the Riópar area (SE Spain): implications on the geology of the Prebetic Zone
    (Sociedad Geológica de España., 2016) Navarro-Ciurana, Didac; Griera, Albert; Gómez-Gras, David; Cardellach, Esteve; Vindel Catena, Elena; Corbella, Mercè
    In the present study a petrographic description and C-O stable isotope data of dolostone occurrences at the Riópar area (Mesozoic Prebetic Zone) are presented. Results constrain the origin and dolomitization processes for each dolomitic unit providing new insights on the geology of the Prebetic. Dolostones are grouped in: i) large seismicscale stratabound dolostones hosted in limestones of Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous ages; and ii) stratabound and patchy dolostones hosted in a carbonatic sequence of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous age. Two dolomitizing origins have been distinguished: i) a low-temperature dolomitization originated from seawater (seismicscale stratabound dolomitized limestones); ii) a hydrothermal dolomitization originated by high temperature brines (stratabound and patchy dolomitized limestones). Results of this study can be used as a guide for other poorly known dolomitic areas in the Prebetic Zone.
  • Publication
    Petrography and geochemistry of fault-controlled hydrothermal dolomites in the Riopar area (Prebetic Zone, SE Spain)
    (Elsevier, 2016-03) Navarro Ciurana, Dídac; Merce Corbella, Merce; Cardellach, Esteve; Vindel Catena, Elena; Gómez Gras, David; Griera, Albert
    The present paper reports the first detailed petrographical and geochemical studies of hydrothermal dolomites related to MVT Zn-(FeePb) deposits in the Riopar area (Mesozoic Prebetic Basin, SE Spain), constraining the nature, origin and evolution of dolomitizing and ore-forming fluids. Mapping and stratigraphic studies revealed two stratabound dolostone geobodies connected by other patchy bodies, which replace carbonate units of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous ages. These dolostones are associated to the WeE trending San Jorge fault, indicating a main tectonic control for fluid flow. Seven different dolomite types were identified: i) matrix-replacive planar-s (ReD-I); ii) matrix-replacive planare (ReD-II); iii) planar-e sucrosic cement (SuD); iv) non-planar grey saddle dolomite cement (SaD-I) predating Zn-(FeePb) sulfides; v) non-planar milky to pinkish saddle dolomite cement (SaD-II) post-dating Zn-(FeePb) ores; vi) ore-replacive planar-e porphyrotopic (PoD); and vii) planar-s cloudy cement (CeD). Meteoric calcite types were also recognized. The different dolomite types are isotopically characterized by: i) depleted d18O (from þ25.1 to þ27.6‰ V-SMOW) and d13C (from 2.3 to þ0.9‰ V-PDB) values compared to Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous limestone signature (d18O: þ27.6 to þ30.9‰ V-SMOW; d13C: þ0.5 to þ3.2‰ V-PDB); and ii) 87Sr/86Sr ratios for the main dolomitization phases (ReD and SuD: 0.70736e0.70773) close to the Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate values (0.70723e0.70731) whereas more radiogenic values (0.70741e0.70830) for saddle dolomites (SaD) related to the Zn-(FeePb) sulfide mineralization prevailed after fluid interaction with Rb-bearing minerals. Microthermometrical studies on two-phase liquid and vapor fluid inclusion populations in planar and non-planar dolomites and sphalerite show homogenization temperatures between 150 and 250 C. These data indicate that both planar and non-planar dolomite textures formed at high-temperatures under hydrothermal conditions in deep-burial diagenetic environments. The main dolomitizing phase (ReD-I/ReD-II and SaD-I) shows low to moderate fluid inclusions salinity (5e14 wt.% eq. NaCl), whereas the dolomitization related to ore precipitation (sphalerite and SaD-II) spreads to higher salinity values (5e25 wt.% eq. NaCl). These data may respond to a mixing between a low salinity fluid (fluid A, less than 5 wt.% eq. NaCl) and a more saline brine (fluid B, more than 25 wt.% eq. NaCl) at different fluid proportions.
  • Publication
    Hydrothermal phosphate vein-type ores from the southern Central Iberian Zone, Spain: Evidence for their relationship to granites and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks.
    (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 2014) Vindel Catena, Elena; Chicharro Álvarez, Eva; Villaseca González, Carlos; López García, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez Pérez-Cejuela, Virginia
    Hydrothermal quartz–apatite veins, called “Iberian-type”, occur exclusively in the southern Central Iberian Zone. This study presents a multidisciplinary approach leading to the mineralogical, fluid inclusions, and geochemical characterization of these veins fromtwo representative areas, Logrosán and Belvís–Navalmoral, in order to establish their relationshipwith nearby phosphorous-rich granites and apatite in Neoproterozoicmetasediments. The mineral assemblage of these veins comprises quartz, apatite, minor sulfides, dolomite, Fe–Mg-carbonates and Fe–Mn-oxides. Three texturally different types of apatite have been recognized in the veins: apatite I showing prismatic habit associated withminor sulfides, apatite II occurring as white fibrous radial crystal aggregates called “dahllite”, and apatite III as grayish to greenish hexagonal crystals. Hydrothermal apatite from veins (H-apatite) is enriched in Sr and depleted in Mn–Y–REE–Th–U–Pb compared to magmatic apatite (M-apatite) from the granitic plutons. However, trace element compositions of apatite from metasedimentary phosphorousrich levels or nodules (S-apatite) of the Schist–Greywacke Complex show similar characteristics to the H-apatite, although the H-apatite stands out for its relatively high Sr-contents. This relative Sr enrichment in H-apatite is interpreted as inherited from both phosphate in Neoproterozoic metasediments (S-apatite) and carbonate levels. REE, fluid inclusion and stable isotope data are consistent with a long episode of hydrothermal activity implying cooling and dilution processes while interacting with phosphate-rich shale and carbonate beds in the SGC. Fluid inclusion study undertaken on hydrothermal apatite and quartz reveals the presence of aqueous low salinity fluids (0.2–6.7 wt.% NaCl equiv.) at moderate to low Th (125–350 °C). All available data point at a recycling event of the southern CIZmetasediments (the SGC) during post-Variscan hydrothermal fluid circulation as the more plausible origin of the phosphate vein-type mineralizations.
  • Publication
    Sulfur and lead isotope systematics: Implications for the genesis of the Riópar Zn-(Fe-Pb) carbonate-hosted deposit (Prebetic Zone, SE Spain)
    (Elsevier, 2017-12) Vindel Catena, Elena; Navarro Ciurana, Dídac; Cardellach, Esteve; Griera, Albert; Gómez Gras, David; Corbella, Mercè
    The Zn-(Fe-Pb) deposits of the Riópar area (Prebetic Zone, SE Spain) are hosted by dolostones that replace Berriasian to Valanginian (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) limestones. Mineralization consists of hypogene sphalerite, marcasite and galena, and supergene calamine zones. The hypogene ores are associated with a saddle dolomite gangue. The ore bodies occur as discordant and stratiform lenses, ore-cemented breccias, cm- to mm wideveins and veinlets, disseminations and stylolite porosity filling within the host dolomites. The main ore controls include stratigraphy and/or lithology, tectonics (faults, fractures and breccias) and availability of metals and sulfur. The morphologies and epigenetic character of the hypogene ore bodies are consistent with the classification of this mineralization as a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit. The Ga/Ge geothermometer in sphalerite yielded a temperature range of 194–252 °C, which represents the temperature of the source region of the ore solution. This value is comparable to the temperature obtained in the ore deposition site, 159 ± 15 °C from the Δ34S geothermometer in sphalerite galena pairs. This similitude points to a hydrothermal fluid that did not cool down significantly during flow from the fluid reservoir area to the precipitation site. δ34S values of basemetal sulfides (−7.5 to +3.5‰) are consistent with thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate (seawater and/or derived from dissolution of evaporites) by interaction with organic compounds (e.g., hydrocarbons, methane), which reduced sulfate to sulfide in the deposition site. The lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb=18.736–18.762; 207Pb/204Pb=15.629–15.660; 208Pb/204Pb=38.496–38.595) of galena suggest that Pb, and probably other metals as Zn, is derived from continental crustal rocks. On the other hand, these relations points to a unique metal source probably derived from the Paleozoic basement rocks. The relationship between bedding-parallel stylolites, dolomitization, sulfide precipitation and Alpine tectonic affecting the MVT ore, suggests a relative timing range for the mineralization in the Riópar area of 95–20 Ma (Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary). The sulfide mineralization and the associated dolomitization are thus explained by the contribution of two fluids that mixed in different proportions during dolomitization and mineralization: i) a fluid probably derived from Cretaceous seawater saturating Mesozoic sediments (Fluid A), characterized by being dilute and initially low temperature, which should have contained organic rich compounds in the ore deposition site (e.g., hydrocarbons and CH4 dissolved gas); and ii) a high salinity hydrothermal brine (Fluid B) rich in both metals and sulfate, circulated through the Paleozoic basement. During the pre-ore dolomitizing stage the fluid phase was dominated by the diluted fluid (Fluid A > Fluid B), whereas in a later fluid pulse, the proportion of the high salinity fluid increased (Fluid A < Fluid B) which allowed sulfide precipitation. MVT exploration in the Prebetic Zone should focus towards the SW of the Riópar mines, in the vicinity of the Alto Guadalquivir-San Jorge fault.
  • Publication
    The Contribution of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to Understanding Pre-Columbian Goldwork Technology: TEM and pre-Columbian goldwork technology
    (University of Oxford, 2018-04) Vindel Catena, Elena; Gumiel Vindel, Carlos; García, J.; López-Acevedo Cornejo, Victoria; Hernando, M.
    This paper highlights the contribution of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when combined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/XEDS) to characterize objects in archaeology. The application of TEM in archaeology is not yet a common tool, but it may provide data that are significant to understanding pre-Columbian gold metallurgy, specifically the gilding and silvering methods. Two gilded rods were studied using a combination of TEM and SEM/XEDS techniques. The objects were found at the Atacames archaeological site, in the Esmeraldas region, Ecuador, which was occupied between ad 750 and 1526 by the Atacames culture. The microchemical and structural results of the inner and the external gilded part of the artefacts support the hypothesis of a gold diffusion to the surface enhanced by chemical treatment with chloride-rich solutions, heating and successive annealing processes. The present study reveals that microstructural investigation by TEM provides useful information with which to investigate the techniques used to modify the chemical surface composition of pre-Columbian artefacts.
  • Publication
    Geología de Grado en Química. Prácticas. 4. Simetría (I)
    (García Moreno, Ana, 2010) Astilleros García-Monge, José Manuel; López De Andrés, María Sol; Viedma Molero, Cristóbal; Vindel Catena, Elena
    Un objeto (cristal) o una distribución de objetos que puede construirse mediante la repetición sistemática de sus partes (caras cristalinas, átomos, iones, etc.) poseen simetría. Estas partes se relacionan entre sí mediante los llamados operadores de simetría. La simetría cristalina resulta evidente en los cristales poliédricos pues, a menudo, sus caras pueden relacionarse entre sí mediante dichos operadores. Sin embargo, independientemente del hábito externo que desarrolle el cristal, su estructura cristalina siempre presentará simetría, ya que la distribución de los átomos, iones o moléculas que lo constituyen pueden relacionarse entre sí mediante la traslación, que es el operador de simetría más sencillo. Esta práctica pretende, por una parte, que el estudiante se familiarice con algunos de los operadores de simetría más importantes. Para ello se propone una serie de ejercicios en los que el alumno deberá localizar los operadores de simetría en los modelos bidimensionales propuestos. Dichos modelos se presentan aislados (no relacionados con otros mediante la traslación) por lo que únicamente presentan simetría puntual. El segundo objetivo, es por tanto, que el alumno sea capaz de clasificar la simetría de los modelos propuestos en algunos de los 10 grupos puntuales planos
  • Publication
    Geología de Grado en Química. Prácticas 1. Reconocimiento de visu de minerales y rocas
    (García Moreno, Ana, 2010) Astilleros García-Monge, José Manuel; López De Andrés, María Sol; Viedma Molero, Cristóbal; Vindel Catena, Elena
    Con esta práctica se pretende iniciar a los alumnos en el reconocimiento de “visu” de minerales y rocas. Para ello se han seleccionado 20 minerales y 7 rocas, cuya identificación, por su abundancia en la corteza terrestre o por su interés geológico o económico, se considera imprescindible en Geología. Se explican las propiedades físicas necesarias para el reconocimiento de minerales y se indican las características que deben cumplir las rocas para su correcta identificación de “visu”. Se trata de una práctica eminentemente básica, orientada a estudiantes de primer curso de Grado en Química, que necesitan adquirir conocimientos elementales de Geología.
  • Publication
    Geología de Grado en Química. Prácticas. 3. Periodicidad
    (García Moreno, Ana, 2010) Astilleros García-Monge, José Manuel; López De Andrés, María Sol; Viedma Molero, Cristóbal; Vindel Catena, Elena
    Generalmente se define el cristal como un sólido en el que las innumerables partículas que lo constituyen están distribuidas periódicamente en las tres direcciones del espacio. Esta característica, la periodicidad, diferencia al cristal de todos los demás tipos de materiales y condiciona la existencia de otras propiedades, también exclusivas del medio cristalino, como son la simetría y la anisotropía. Esta práctica pretende que el alumno se familiarice con las herramientas básicas utilizadas en cristalografía para describir el medio periódico. La práctica presupone un conocimiento previo por parte del alumno del concepto de red cristalina y de cómo ésta se construye a partir de la traslación mediante vectores de los puntos equivalentes que la conforman. Debido a su utilidad pedagógica, gran parte de los ejercicios se realizarán sobre redes planas (bidimensionales), si bien en alguno de ellos se ha añadido una tercera dimensión, similar al mundo tridimensional del cristal real.
  • Publication
    Modelado 3D en bordes destructivos de placas: relaciones entre Geología e Historia. El caso de Nueva Zelanda
    (2019-10-29) Vindel Catena, Elena; López Andrés, Sol; Ancochea Soto, Eumenio; Sánchez Pastor, Nuria; Martín Crespo, Tomas; Miñón Pérez, Miguel Ángel
    En este Proyecto INNOVA-DOCENCIA, "Modelado 3D en bordes destructivo de placas: relaciones entre Geología e Historia. El caso de Nueva Zelanda" se ha realizado la película "Nueva Zelanda: un país en el Anillo de Fuego del Pacífico", una nueva contribución al Canal de Vídeo "Geología e Historia (G&H)". Nueva Zelanda es una zona de la Tierra ideal para la comprensión de fenómenos geológicos: Tectónica de placas, vulcanismo, seísmos, geotermalismo y mineralogía y su relación con la Historia.