Person: Herrero Fernández, María Josefa
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Mineralogía y Petrología
Petrología y Geoquímica
Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
- PublicationVariable style of transition between Palaeogene fluvial fan and lacustrine systems, southern Pyrenean foreland, NE Spain(Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007) Sáez, Alberto; Anadón, Pere; Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Moscariello, AndreaTwo Palaeogene fluvial fan systems linked to the south-Pyrenean margin are recognized in the eastern Ebro Basin: the Cardona–Su´ ria and Solsona–Sanau¨ ja fans. These had radii of 40 and 35 km and were 800 and 600 km2 in area respectively. During the Priabonian to the Middle Rupelian, the fluvial fans built into a hydrologically closed foreland basin, and shallow lacustrine systems persisted in the basin centre. In the studied area, both fans are part of the same upward-coarsening megasequence (up to 800 m thick), driven by hinterland drainage expansion and foreland propagation of Pyrenean thrusts. Fourteen sedimentary facies have been grouped into seven facies associations corresponding to medial fluvial fan, channelized terminal lobe, nonchannelized terminal lobe, mudflat, deltaic, evaporitic playa-lake and carbonate-rich, shallow lacustrine environments. Lateral correlations define two styles of alluvial-lacustrine transition. During low lake-level stages, terminal lobes developed, whereas during lake highstands, fluvial-dominated deltas and interdistributary bays were formed. Terminal lobe deposits are characterized by extensive (100–600 m wide) sheet-like fine sandstone beds formed by sub-aqueous, quasi-steady, hyperpycnal turbidity currents. Sedimentary structures and trace fossils indicate rapid desiccation and subaerial exposure of the lobe deposits. These deposits are arranged in coarsening–fining sequences (metres to tens of metres in thickness) controlled by a combination of tectonics, climatic oscillations and autocyclic sedimentary processes. The presence of anomalously deeply incised distributary channels associated with distal terminal lobe or mudflat deposits indicates rapid lake-level falls. Deltaic deposits form progradational coarsening-upward sequences (several metres thick) characterized by channel and friction-dominated mouth-bar facies overlying white-grey offshore lacustrine facies. Deltaic bar deposits are less extensive (50–300 m wide) than the terminal lobes and were also deposited by hyperpycnal currents, although they lack evidence of emergence. Sandy deltaic deposits accumulated locally at the mouths of main feeder distal fan streams and were separated by muddy interdistributary bays; whereas the terminal lobe sheets expand from a series of mid-fan intersection points and coalesced to form a more continuous sandy fan fringe.
- PublicationCurrent travertines precipitation related to artificial CO2 leakages from a natural reservoir (Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary Basin, SE Spain)(Elsevier, 2019-10) Rodrigo Naharro, Julio; Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Granados, Arsenio; Pérez del Villar Guillén, L.In the framework of a natural CO2 reservoir with CO2 leakages as an analogue of a failed CO2 deep geological storage, the current precipitation of travertines and the associated upwelling of CO2-rich saline groundwater were analysed. This natural analogue is located in the Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary Basin (SE Spain). The study comprises of the chemistry of both groundwater and travertines, including stable isotopes, mineralogy and petrography of the travertines, all this performed after a review of the geology of the basin. In this sense, the basin gathers the main features of a safe natural CO2 reservoir in a deep saline aquifer sealed by a thick marl formation. The aquifer was artificially perturbed by the drilling of wells, inducing the travertines precipitation at these water discharge points. Groundwater is saline, slightly acid, oversaturated in aragonite and calcite and with significant concentrations of heavy elements, some of them toxic. From an isotopic viewpoint, the relative constant δ13C-DIC values suggest that carbon is mainly inorganic in origin with minor organic and mantle contributions. Travertines are basically composed of aragonite or calcite, their precipitation being controlled by a sudden CO2 degassing and minor biological activity. Their δ13C signatures indicate that carbon mainly has an inorganic origin, although some contribution of organic carbon must be considered as well. Furthermore, these carbonate deposits did not precipitate in isotopic equilibrium, as determined by δ18O values. Finally, it is suggested that the appearance of travertines along with their carbon isotopic signatures represent efficient tools for detecting CO2 leakages from any CO2 storage site.
- Publication3D model generated from UAV photogrammetry and semi-automated rock mass characterization(Elsevier, 2022-06) Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Acevedo, Francisco Javier; Trigos Luque, LauraThis work develops a rock mass characterization of a limestone quarry in northern Spain based on a 3D model obtained by using photographs taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight and structure-from-motion algorithms. This methodology permits to obtain photogrammetric information in a rapid and low-cost way. Geological planar facets (stratification, faults) are related to the tectonic history of a geological formation and permit assessing slope stability. The spatial orientation of planar features is usually measured with a compass and clinometer, which requires experience and knowledge, it is space limited, and sometimes hazardous. Geological 3D models can mitigate these limitations. A 3D point cloud generated from a series of images obtained using an UAV is included in the open-access applications DSE and FACET, which serve to determine the main discontinuity planes within a limestone quarry. Comparison of the results from software analyses with data hand-measured directly in the field reveals the effectiveness of the use of UAV to develop a virtual outcrop model that permits to obtain accurate measurements. The resultant quarry 3D model has been included in Sketchfab, an open access platform that permits easy and quick access and availability for a wide audience. This study shows that the use of UAV combined with structure-from-motion algorithms is of great interest for geosciences as well as other related disciplines such as mining or civil engineering, and can facilitate decision-making for policy makers and authorities. In addition, it is a technique of great use to develop rock mass characterization in a low-cost, rapid, and easy way, and permits to reach areas with difficult accessibility. This way, this methodology can also be very useful for geosciences teaching purposes, as a complement to traditional field lectures, or to develop virtual field trips and laboratories.
- PublicationHydrothermal activity within a sedimentary succession: aragonites as indicators of Mesozoic Rifting (Iberian Basin, Spain)(Taylor & Francis, 2020) Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Marfil, Rafaela; Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Scherer, M.; Arroyo Rey, Xabier; Martín Crespo, Tomás; López Andrés, SolPseudo-hexagonal aragonite crystals occur profusely at various locations within the Upper Triassic sequences in Europe, America and Africa. In the Spanish Iberian Basin, they are associated with corrensite and gypsum, which characterize saline mudflat and salt-pond facies. Similarly, shaped crystals occur as dolomite, quartz, chalcedony or even copper pseudomorphs after aragonite in several parts of North and South America, and they are currently forming in association with hydrothermal spring deposits in Kenya. In Spain, this aragonite was first described at Molina de Aragón (Spain). Its origin has previously been explained as resulting from burial diagenetic processes, although petrographical, geochemical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion evidence suggest a formation in other conditions. The aragonite crystals occur dominantly at locations near outcrops of pre-Hettangian alkaline magmatism, along Middle-to-Late Jurassic NW-SE faults. The formation of these aragonite crystals is interpreted as the result of upwards flow of hydrothermal fluids through the Middle-to-Late Jurassic synrift faults and the interaction with infiltrated shallow marine water. This hydrothermal circulation caused also the transformation of Mg-rich clay into corrensite. The pseudomorphs after aragonite found in other areas of the world appear related to sequences of similar depositional environments and interaction of magmatic intrusions within rifting settings. Such aragonite crystals may therefore help to unravel the geological and tectonic history in their area of occurrence.
- PublicationDiagenetic Origin of Bipyramidal Quartz and Hydrothermal Aragonites within the Upper Triassic Saline Succession of the Iberian Basin: Implications for Interpreting the Burial–Thermal Evolution of the Basin(MDPI, 2020) Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Marfil, Rafaela; Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Scherer, MichaelWithin the Upper Triassic successions in the Iberian Basin (Spain), the occurrence of both idiomorphic bipyramidal quartz crystals as well as pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals are related to mudstone and evaporite bearing sequences. Bipyramidal-euhedral quartz crystals occur commonly at widespread locations and similar idiomorphic crystals have been described in other formations and ages from Europe, America, Pakistan, and Africa. Similarly, pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals are located at three main sites in the Iberian Range and are common constituents of deposits of this age in France, Italy, and Morocco. This study presents a detailed description of the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the bipyramidal quartz crystals to decipher their time of formation in relation to the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary succession in which they formed. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses permit the separation of an inner part of quartz crystals with abundant anhydrite and organic-rich inclusions. This inner part resulted from near-surface recrystallization (silicification) of an anhydrite nodule, at temperatures that were <40 °C. Raman spectra reveal the existence of moganite and polyhalite, which reinforces the evaporitic character of the original depositional environment. The external zone of the quartz contains no anhydrite or organic inclusions and no signs of evaporites in the Raman spectra, being interpreted as quartz overgrowths formed during burial, at temperatures between 80 to 90 °C. Meanwhile, the aragonite that appears in the same Keuper deposits was precipitated during the Callovian, resulting from the mixing of hydrothermal fluids with infiltrated waters of marine origin, at temperatures ranging between 160 and 260 °C based on fluids inclusion analyses. Although both pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals and bipyramidal quartz appear within the same succession, they formed at different phases of the diagenetic and tectonic evolution of the basin: bipyramidal quartz crystals formed in eo-to mesodiagenetic environments during a rifting period at Upper Triassic times, while aragonite formed 40 Ma later as a result of hydrothermal fluids circulating through normal faults.
- PublicationThe progressive distancing of aggregate quarries from the demand areas: Magnitude, causes, and impact on CO2 emissions in Madrid Region (1995–2018)(Elsevier, 2021-12-10) Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; López Acevedo, Francisco Javier; Trigos Luque, LauraAggregates are natural materials of great demand. They are directly used for construction or as constituents of ready-mixed concrete or asphalt products, and they appear as an index of the economic activity of a country. Distance between quarries and demand points controls the price of high place-value products such as aggregates. Their potential exploitation depends on factors such as geology, environmental and heritage protection laws, or even on social rejection near populated areas. These factors are forcing quarries to move away from demand areas and make the aggregates to be transported for longer distances, with associated economic, environmental, and safety issues. Many authors have indicated the progressive distancing of the aggregates quarries from to the demand areas based on perceptions but without estimations supporting this hypothesis. This work has studied the location of the quarries supplying the demand of aggregates of Madrid region in the period 1995–2018. The study proves the progressive distancing of the quarries and even the relocation of part of the production to neighboring provinces. The kilometers travelled in excess due to the distancing and the associated CO2 emissions, have been estimated. Despite the general opinion that the “Not in My Backyard” phenomenon (NIMBY) was the cause of the distancing of the quarries from the demand areas, it has been found that the main reason in the case of the Madrid region is not the opposition of the citizens but a combination of demographic factors and different land use restrictions.
- PublicationDemographic vs economic variables in the modelling and forecasting of the demand of aggregates: The case of the Spanish market (1995–2016)(Elsevier, 2020-03) Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Trigos Luque, Larua; Sanz Pérez, EugenioAggregates, including sand, gravel and crushed stones, are the first mined resource by volume of production and the second most employed natural material, only after water. The demand of aggregates depends on the level of activity of the building and construction industry, which supplies housing and infrastructures to society. Knowing the variables controlling the demand of aggregates permits an estimation of future demand. This figure is of great interest for both the private sector to take strategic decisions and for the public sector to optimize permits and to promote or limit extraction in certain areas. This work studies the relationship between the demand of aggregates and various demographic, economic and construction variables during a complete economic cycle (1995–2016) in Spain. The analysis includes variables such as population, GDP, unemployment rate, etc., as well as variables never used before, that have resulted to be relevant: the number of people reaching the emancipation age, number of divorces, etc. Results indicate that the higher correlations appear between the demand of aggregates and house permitting, net in-migration, population increase, value added by construction, and number of people reaching emancipation age. There is as well a strong inverse correlation between the unemployment rate and the demand of aggregates. With these results, various models to forecast the demand of aggregates are proposed and an estimation of the total demand in Spain until 2050 is given.
- PublicationChapter 6 Economic Aspects of Continental Carbonates and Carbonates Transformed under Continental Conditions(Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 2010) Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Escavy Fernández, J.I.Continental carbonates provide economic resources to a diverse set of industries, including the energy, chemical, construction and tourist industries. Many continental rift basins harbour lacustrine deposits comprising major hydrocarbon provinces, including those of Southeast Asia, West Africa and South America. In Southeast Asia, several hydrocarbon reservoirs have been recognized as “giant oil fields”. Lacustrine basins are the source of significant quantities of coal in areas in Greece and Turkey, and calcretes have recently emerged as outstanding tracers for gold exploration in Australia. Also in Australia, uranium reserves in so-called surficial deposits are economically significant, as are the ores of Namibia. Karsts formed by the dissolution of carbonate bedrock during subaerial exposure may contain economically important resources, such as hydrocarbons and bauxite. Karst also may result in significant aquifers. Finally, karst-affected and other terrestrial carbonates may be important to some areas due to their economic impact on the tourist industry.
- PublicationThe use of location–allocation techniques for exploration targeting of high place-value industrial minerals: A market-based prospectivity study of the Spanish gypsum resources(Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 2013) Escavy Fernández, José Ignacio; Herrero Fernández, María JosefaProspectivity mapping is used to define favorable areas for mineral exploration. The location–allocation modeling can help in ranking exploration zones for high-volume low-price industrial minerals. This type of minerals are said to have a high place-value, meaning that they derive much of their value from the fact that extraction points are located close to the demand points. With this aim, a GIS-based location–allocation model of the gypsum resources in Spain is presented in this paper. Results point to the recognition of the most interesting areas that should be investigated and places where new gypsum facilities could be located. Moreover, the model allows evaluation of the relative economic interest of the new areas as compared with the existing ones. Based on this modeling, the geological regions with the greatest potential to place new facilities are located in the northwestern (Cantabrian zone) and north-eastern (easternmost Catalonia) parts of the Iberian Peninsula, with potential market share values higher than 5.25%. Most of the economically interesting gypsum bearing units in these regions are of Mesozoic age, although Neogene deposits of the central part of Catalonia are not ruled out. In addition, the prospectivity analysis map leads to establish an area where the excess of gypsum factories results in a drastic decrease of the market share value within this region (< 1.84 %). The maps obtained with this prospectivity analysis help in the area selection and the target identification phases of a mineral exploration. The model could easily be used for other similar high place-value industrial minerals and rocks.
- PublicationClay mineral occurrence and burial transformations: reservoir potential of thepermo-triassic sediments of the Iberian range(Wiley, 2015) Marfil, Rafaela; La Iglesia, Á.; Herrero Fernández, María Josefa; Scherer, Michael; Delgado Huertas, AntonioThe diagenetic evolution of Permian (Autunian and Saxonian) and Triassic (Buntsandstein) sand-stones and mudrocks have been studied over 1000 m sequence from the Sig€uenza 44-3 drill core inthe Iberian Range, Spain. We compare and contrast the diagenetic processes in these differentlithologies and the timing of clay mineral formation. Moreover, we establish the relationshipbetween clay mineral diagenesis and reservoir potential. Both the Permian and Triassic successionsare characterised by conglomerates, sandstones and interbedded mudstones of fluvial origin thatchange upwards into distal deposits of a fluvio-deltaic system. The clay minerals are illite, illite-smectite mixed layers, kaolinite and dickite. The illite content in all sequences is not related todiminished feldspars; it is owing to the initial detrital mineralogical composition of the Autuniansandstones. The effect of feldspar alteration to kaolin minerals has a strong influence on the lost ofporosity-permeability in the Saxonian facies. In contrast, illite and mixed layers illite-smectite arethe main clay rims preserving porosity in the Buntsandstein sandstones. However, fibrous illite isthe dominant pore-filling in the Permian Autunian facies, closing porosity and permeability. Kaoli-nite and dickite show opposite trends: dickite increases yet kaolinite decreases from Triassic to Per-mian sandstones. Dickite replaced kaolinite during burial-thermal evolution of the succession. ThedD andd18O isotopic signatures from silt and clay fractions indicate a mixture of meteoric and mar-ine waters, and suggest a minimum temperature range between 60 and 150°C for diagenetic porefluids. The PermiandD values (�24&to�44&) are relatively similar to Buntsandstein values(�24&to�37&). However, the Permiand18O values (+7.6 and+15.3, average of+13.3&) aregenerally higher byca.6.2&compared to the Buntsandstein data (4.8–10.1&, average+7.1&).Such a variation is interpreted as the result of mesodiagenetic pore fluid changes. The extensivedickitisation of kaolinite is attributed to increased hydrogen ions resulting from maturation oforganic matter. The vitrinite reflectance of organic matter and the modelled thermal history suggesta maximum burial of 3400 m, accomplished 70 Ma ago. The Permo-Triassic reached the gas win-dow shortly before major uplift, at 65 Ma, when further maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion ceased