Cadenas Fernández, Estefanía

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Cadenas Fernández
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
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Sanidad Animal
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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Adenovirus-vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens Cocktail Is Not Protective against Virulent Arm07 Isolate in Eurasian Wild Boar
    (MDPI, 2020-02-28) Cadenas Fernández, Estefanía; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Kosowska, Aleksandra; Rivera Arroyo, Belén; Mayoral Alegre, Francisco José; Rodríguez Bertos, Antonio Manuel; Yao, Jianxiu; Bray, Jocelyn; Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Mwangi, Waithaka; Barasona García-Arévalo, José Ángel
    African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of domestic and wild suids for which there is currently no vaccine or treatment available. The recent spread of ASF virus (ASFV) through Europe and Asia is causing enormous economic and animal losses. Unfortunately, the measures taken so far are insufficient and an effective vaccine against ASFV needs to be urgently developed. We hypothesized that immunization with a cocktail of thirty-five rationally selected antigens would improve the protective efficacy of subunit vaccine prototypes given that the combination of fewer immunogenic antigens (between 2 and 22) has failed to elicit protective efficacy. To this end, immunogenicity and efficacy of thirty-five adenovirus-vectored ASFV antigens were evaluated in wild boar. The treated animals were divided into different groups to test the use of BioMize adjuvant and different inoculation strategies. Forty-eight days after priming, the nine treated and two control wild boar were challenged with the virulent ASFV Arm07 isolate. All animals showed clinical signs and pathological findings consistent with ASF. This lack of protection is in line with other studies with subunit vaccine prototypes, demonstrating that there is still much room for improvement to obtain an effective subunit ASFV vaccine.
  • Publication
    The Role of Interleukine-10 and Interferon-γ as Potential Markers of the Evolution of African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Wild Boar
    (2021-06-15) Barroso Arévalo, Sandra; Barasona, Jose A.; Cadenas Fernández, Estefanía; Sánchez Vizcaíno, Jose M.
    African swine fever virus (ASFv) is one of the most challenging pathogens to affect both domestic and wild pigs. The disease has now spread to Europe and Asia, causing great damage to the pig industry. Although no commercial vaccine with which to control the disease is, as yet, available, some potential vaccine candidates have shown good results in terms of protection. However, little is known about the host immune mechanisms underlying that protection, especially in wild boar, which is the main reservoir of the disease in Europe. Here, we study the role played by two cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) in wild boar orally inoculated with the attenuated vaccine candidate Lv17/WB/Rie1 and challenged with a virulent ASFv genotype II isolate. A group of naïve wild boar challenged with the latter isolate was also established as a control group. Our results showed that both cytokines play a key role in protecting the host against the challenge virus. While high levels of IL-10 in serum may trigger an immune system malfunctioning in challenged animals, the provision of stable levels of this cytokine over time may help to control the disease. This, together with high and timely induction of IFN-γ by the vaccine candidate, could help protect animals from fatal outcomes. Further studies should be conducted in order to support these preliminary results and confirm the role of these two cytokines as potential markers of the evolution of ASFV infection.
  • Publication
    High Doses of Inactivated African Swine Fever Virus Are Safe, but Do Not Confer Protection against a Virulent Challenge
    (MPDI, 2021-03-10) Cadenas Fernández, Estefanía; Sánchez Vizcaíno, Jose M.; van den Born, Erwin; Kosowska, Aleksandra; van Kilsdonk, Emma; Fernández Pacheco, Paloma; Gallardo, Carmina; Arias, Marisa; Barasona, Jose A.
    African swine fever (ASF) is currently the major concern of the global swine industry, as a consequence of which a reconsideration of the containment and prevention measures taken to date is urgently required. A great interest in developing an effective and safe vaccine against ASF virus (ASFV) infection has, therefore, recently appeared. The objective of the present study is to test an inactivated ASFV preparation under a vaccination strategy that has not previously been tested in order to improve its protective effect. The following have been considered: (i) virus inactivation by using a low binary ethyleneimine (BEI) concentration at a low temperature, (ii) the use of new and strong adjuvants; (iii) the use of very high doses (6 × 109 haemadsorption in 50% of infected cultures (HAD50)), and (iv) simultaneous double inoculation by two different routes of administration: intradermal and intramuscular. Five groups of pigs were, therefore, inoculated with BEI- Pol16/DP/OUT21 in different adjuvant formulations, twice with a 4-week interval. Six weeks later, all groups were intramuscularly challenged with 10 HAD50 of the virulent Pol16/DP/OUT21 ASFV isolate. All the animals had clinical signs and pathological findings consistent with ASF. This lack of effectiveness supports the claim that an inactivated virus strategy may not be a viable vaccine option with which to fight ASF.