Person: Martín Hernández, Raquel
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
- PublicationA new multiplex PCR protocol to detect mixed trypanosomatid infections in species of Apis and Bombus(Elsevier, 2018-05) Bartolomé, Carolina; Buendía, María; Benito, María; Rúa, Pilar de la; Ornosa Gallego, Concepción; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Maside, XulioTrypanosomatids are highly prevalent pathogens of Hymenoptera; however, most molecular methods used to detect them in Apis and Bombus spp. do not allow the identification of the infecting species, which then becomes expensive and time consuming. To overcome this drawback, we developed a multiplex PCR protocol to readily identify in a single reaction the main trypanosomatids present in these hymenopterans (Lotmaria passim, Crithidia mellificae and Crithidia bombi), which will facilitate the study of their epidemiology and transmission dynamics. A battery of primers, designed to simultaneously amplify fragments of the RNA polymerase II large subunit (RPB1) of L. passim, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of C. mellificae and the DNA topoisomerase II (TOPII) of C. bombi, was tested for target specificity under single and mixed template conditions using DNA extracted from cell cultures (L. passim ATCC PRA403; C. mellificae ATCC 30254) and from a bumblebee specimen infected with C. bombi only (14_349). Once validated, the performance of the method was assessed using DNA extractions from seven Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758) and five Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) field samples infected with trypanosomatids whose identity had been previously determined by PCR-cloning and sequencing (P-C-S). The new method confirmed the results obtained by P-C-S: two of the honeybee samples were parasitized by L. passim, C. mellificae and C. bombi at the same time, whereas the other five were infected with L. passim only. The method confirmed the simultaneous presence of L. passim and C. mellificae in two B. terrestris, where these parasites had not previously been reported.
- PublicationEl orfismo y la magia(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Servicio de Publicaciones, 2007) Martín Hernández, Raquel; Bernabé, AlbertoLa presente tesis doctoral pretende ser una contribución, a través de la revisión de testimonios literarios y epigráficos, al estudio de la magia en la Antigüedad y la relación de ésta con Orfeo y el orfismo, dos ámbitos que en el último siglo han experimentado un importante auge. La tesis se divide en dos partes principales. La primera de ellas se compone de un breve recorrido por las diversas corrientes antropológicas utilizadas para el estudio de la magia y la religión y su aplicación al estudio de los documentos grecolatinos. La segunda se trata de un estudio de diversos términos griegos relativos a los misterios y su uso en los documentos mágicos. La segunda parte de la tesis doctoral consiste en la revisión de los testimonios órficos y su relación con la magia. Abordamos un estudio diacrónico de las fuentes que transmiten el mito de Orfeo para estudiar la evolución del personaje mítico en relación con la magia y los magos. Estudiamos también la obra mágica y pseudo-científica a él atribuida por los autores literarios grecolatinos y los textos conservados de las obras astrológicas de Orfeo. Cabe también señalar el estudio de las laminillas órficas de oro y su relación con los amuletos mágicos así como otros textos mágicos como defixiones y encantamientos en plomo que pueden estar relacionados con el orfismo. Por último abordamos el estudio de las primeras columnas del Papiro de Derveni, que conservan el desarrollo y comentario de un ritual órfico oficiado por unos magos, y la visión platónica de los sacerdotes órficos, cercanos en la visión del filósofo a los adivinos y brujos
- PublicationConvertir el Trabajo de Fin de Asignatura (TFA) en aportación de calidad al conocimiento social (II)(2021-07) Herrero de Jáuregui, Miguel; Jiménez San Cristóbal, Ana Isabel; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Pinel Martínez, Pablo; Sanz Extremeño, Ignacio; Santos Marinas, Enrique; Paz Obligado, Camila
- PublicationColonisation Patterns of Nosema ceranae in the Azores Archipelago(MDPI, 2022-06-25) Lopes, Ana Rita; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Kafafi Segura, Sara; Henriques, Dora; Pinto, Maria AliceNosema ceranae is a highly prevalent pathogen of Apis mellifera, which is distributed worldwide. However, there may still exist isolated areas that remain free of N. ceranae. Herein, we used molecular tools to survey the Azores to detect N. ceranae and unravel its colonisation patterns. To that end, we sampled 474 colonies from eight islands in 2014/2015 and 91 from four islands in 2020. The findings revealed that N. ceranae was not only present but also the dominant species in the Azores. In 2014/2015, N. apis was rare and N. ceranae prevalence varied between 2.7% in São Jorge and 50.7% in Pico. In 2020, N. ceranae prevalence increased significantly (p < 0.001) in Terceira and São Jorge also showing higher infection levels. The spatiotemporal patterns suggest that N. ceranae colonised the archipelago recently, and it rapidly spread across other islands, where at least two independent introductions might have occurred. Flores and Santa Maria have escaped the N. ceranae invasion, and it is remarkable that Santa Maria is also free of Varroa destructor, which makes it one of the last places in Europe where the honey bee remains naive to these two major biotic stressors.
- PublicationBee Trypanosomatids: First Steps in the Analysis of the Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Lotmaria passim, Crithidia bombi and Crithidia mellificae(Springer Nature, 2021-10-05) Bartolomé, Carolina; Buendía Abad, María; Ornosa Gallego, Concepción; Rúa, Pilar De la; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; Maside, XulioTrypanosomatids are among the most prevalent parasites in bees but, despite the fact that their impact on the colonies can be quite important and that their infectivity may potentially depend on their genotypes, little is known about the population diversity of these pathogens. Here we cloned and sequenced three non-repetitive single copy loci (DNA topoisomerase II, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and RNA polymerase II large subunit, RPB1) to produce new genetic data from Crithidia bombi, C. mellificae and Lotmaria passim isolated from honeybees and bumblebees. These were analysed by applying population genetic tools in order to quantify and compare their variability within and between species, and to obtain information on their demography and population structure. The general pattern for the three species was that (1) they were subject to the action of purifying selection on nonsynonymous variants, (2) the levels of within species diversity were similar irrespective of the host, (3) there was evidence of recombination among haplotypes and (4) they showed no haplotype structuring according to the host. C. bombi exhibited the lowest levels of synonymous variation (πS= 0.06 ± 0.04 %) — and a mutation frequency distribution compatible with a population expansion after a bottleneck — that contrasted with the extensive polymorphism displayed by C. mellificae (πS= 2.24 ± 1.00 %), which likely has a more ancient origin. L. passim showed intermediate values (πS= 0.40 ± 0.28 %) and an excess of variants a low frequencies probably linked to the spread of this species to new geographical areas.
- PublicationSeasonality of Coxiella burnetii among Wild Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Meso-Mediterranean Ecosystem(MPDI, 2021-12-29) Sánchez, María; Valcárcel, Félix; González, Julia; González, Marta G.; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Tercero, José M.; González Jara, Pablo; Olmeda, A. Sonia(1) Background: Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii that have cases reported in humans and animals almost everywhere. The aim of this study was to describe the seasonality of Coxiella burnetii in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum in a meso-Mediterranean ecosystem. (2) Methods: two populations of wild rabbits that differ in whether or not they share habitat with ungulates, mainly red deer (Cervus elaphus) were sampled for a year to collect ticks, blood and vaginal or anal swabs. Presence of C. burnetii DNA in swabs and the tick H. lusitanicum was determined by PCR and serum antibodies by ELISA. (3) Results: C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47.2% of 583 rabbits, in 65.5% of sera, and in more than half of the H. lusitanicum. There were small variations according to sex and age of the rabbits but significant according to the habitat (4) Conclusions: The results indicate that C. burnetii circulates freely between wild rabbits and H. lusitanicum and the sylvatic cycle in meso-Mediterranean environments relies in the presence of wild rabbits and H. lusitanicum above all if sharing habitat with red deer.
- PublicationDetection of Microsporidia in Pollinator Communities of a Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot for Wild Bees(Springer Link, 2021-09-29) Martínez López, Vicente; Ruiz, Carlos; Muñoz, Irene; Ornosa, Concepción; Higes, Mariano; Martín Hernández, Raquel; Rúa, Pilar de laInsect pollination is crucial for the maintenance of natural and managed ecosystems but the functioning of this ecosystem service is threatened by a worldwide decline of pollinators. Key factors in this situation include the spread and interspecific transmission of pathogens worldwide through the movement of managed pollinators. Research on this field has been mainly conducted in some particular species, while studies assessing the interspecific transmission of pathogens at a community level are scarce. However, this information is pivotal to design strategies to protect pollinators. Herein, we analysed the prevalence of two common microsporidia pathogens of managed honey bees (Nosema ceranae and N. apis) in bee communities of semiarid Mediterranean areas from the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Our results confirm the ability of N. ceranae to disperse across wild bee communities in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems since it was detected in 36 Apoidea species (39% of the sampling; for the first time in nine genera). The prevalence of the pathogen did not show any phylogenetic signal which suggests a superfamily host range of the pathogen or that wild bees may be acting only as vectors of N. ceranae. In addition, N. apis was detected in an Eucera species, which is the second time it has been detected by molecular techniques in a host other than the honey bee. Our study represents the primary assessment of the prevalence of microsporidia at community level in Mediterranean areas and provides outstanding results on the ability of Nosema pathogens to spread across the landscape.
- PublicationAdaptation of the classical end-point ITS-PCR for the diagnosis of avian trichomonosis to a real-time PCR reveals Bonelli’s eagle as a new host for Trichomonas gypaetinii(Springer, 2022-10-11) Alejandro Mateo, Sandra; Azami Conesa, Iris; Martín Maldonado, Bárbara; Pastor Tiburón, Natalia; Martín Hernández, Raquel; González González, Fernando; Gómez Muñoz, María TeresaAvian trichomonosis is a parasitic disease caused mainly by Trichomonas gallinae and other Trichomonas species. It can be asymptomatic, or it can produce a necrotic lesion in the upper digestive tract and spread to other organs, causing the death of the infected birds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate an adapted real-time PCR method for the diagnosis of different genotypes and species of avian oropharyngeal trichomonads. Fifty-six samples from the oropharynx of Bonelli’s eagles (Aquila fasciata) obtained between 2018 and 2019 were analyzed using the real-time PCR and the end-point PCR, both targeting trichomonads ITS, and the results were compared by a coefficient of agreement. All positive samples were sequenced. The analysis showed a higher percentage of detection of real-time PCR ITS compared with end-point PCR ITS (64.3 vs 55.4%), and good agreement value (Kappa = 0.816). Melting temperature value for resulting amplicons of real-time PCR for avian trichomonads was 83.45 ± 0.72 °C. Genotypes A, D, and III were found among the sequences. Moreover, Trichomonas gypaetinii, a common species in scavenger birds, is reported for the first time in Bonelli’s eagles.
- PublicationEpidemiology of the Microsporidium Nosema ceranae in Four Mediterranean Countries(MPDI, 2022-09-13) Jabal Uriel, Clara; Barrios, Laura; Bonjour Dalmon, Anne; Caspi Yona, Shiran; Chejanovsly, Nor; Erez, Tal; Henriques, Dora; Higes, Mariano; Le Conte, Yves; Lopes, Ana R.; Meana, Aránzazu; Pinto, Maria Alice; Reyes Carreño, Maritza; Soroker, Victoria; Martín Hernández, RaquelNosema ceranae is a highly prevalent intracellular parasite of honey bees’ midgut worldwide. This Microsporidium was monitored during a long-term study to evaluate the infection at apiary and intra-colony levels in six apiaries in four Mediterranean countries (France, Israel, Portugal, and Spain). Parameters on colony strength, honey production, beekeeping management, and climate were also recorded. Except for São Miguel (Azores, Portugal), all apiaries were positive for N. ceranae, with the lowest prevalence in mainland France and the highest intra-colony infection in Israel. A negative correlation between intra-colony infection and colony strength was observed in Spain and mainland Portugal. In these two apiaries, the queen replacement also influenced the infection levels. The highest colony losses occurred in mainland France and Spain, although they did not correlate with the Nosema infection levels, as parasitism was low in France and high in Spain. These results suggest that both the effects and the level of N. ceranae infection depends on location and beekeeping conditions. Further studies on host-parasite coevolution, and perhaps the interactions with other pathogens and the role of honey bee genetics, could assist in understanding the difference between nosemosis disease and infection, to develop appropriate strategies for its control.
- PublicationActividades de formación transversal para el grado de Filología Clásica: Iniciación en las disciplinas auxiliares de la filología.(2016-07-01) Martín Hernández, Raquel