Novo Rodríguez, Marta

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First Name
Last Name
Novo Rodríguez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Biológicas
Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 32
  • Publication
    Effects of bisphenol S on the life cycle of earthworms and its assessment in the context of climate change
    (Elsevier, 2021-03-24) Marcos, A.; Trigo, D.; Muñiz González, A. B.; Tilikj, Natasha; Martínez Guitarte, J. L.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta
    Two of the main challenges facing soil organisms nowadays are emerging contaminants and climate change. The biosolids used in agriculture can contain xenobiotics, such as bisphenols, not regulated in soil. The proven harmful effect of bisphenol A (BPA) has urged the search for replacements such as bisphenol S (BPS) but no studies have tested the effects of this substitute on soil organisms. Our aim was to study the impacts of BPS on the biological cycle of two earthworm species, Dendrobaena veneta and Eisenia fetida, and compare to earlier results with BPA to confirm its suitability as replacement. Moreover, interactions with temperature were investigated, the increase of which is expected due to climate change. Sublethal concentrations (10, 100, 1000 mg kg−1 ) were evaluated by an artificial soil test at 21 °C. Additional tests with D. veneta were performed at 26 °C, to observe whether a 5 °C increase affected the toxicity of BPS in earthworms. In E. fetida, reproduction (number of juveniles and cocoons) was negatively affected by BPS but growth was not negatively impacted. InD. veneta reproduction was not affected and greater growth was detected in the lowest concentration tested only at 26 °C. Increase in temperature showed no interaction on BPS toxicity but had a greater negative impact than the toxicant and adults showed significantly lower growth and reproductive rate at 26 °C. A direct contact test with BPS was performed to evaluate mortality and enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The measured enzymatic activity was higher with increasing concentration of BPS at 48 h and 21 °C inD. veneta but not in E. fetida or at 26 °C. Our results suggest that BPS is slightly less toxic than BPA supporting its use as alternative and also highlight the harmful effects that an increase in temperature can have in earthworm populations, exceeding those of certain toxicants.
  • Publication
    Unearthing the historical biogeography of Mediterranean earthworms (Annelida:Hormogastridae)
    (Wiley, 2015-04) Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Trigo Aza, María Dolores
    Aim: The genetic diversity and distribution of earthworm species in the Mediterranean Basin has been influenced by their low vagility, as well as by the basin’s complex geological and climatic history. Within this context, our objective was to evaluate the evolutionary history of hormogastrid earthworms by exploring their phylogeny, reconstructing ancestral areas and identifying potential vicariance and dispersal events. Location: Western Mediterranean region, encompassing the geographical range of the family Hormogastridae (four genera, 30 species and subspecies). Methods: We sampled the easternmost area of the hormogastrid range and integrated 606 new sequences with all the molecular data available from previous studies on the westernmost area. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were amplified and sequenced, and the hormogastrid phylogeny (using Bayesian and likelihood methods) and networks were investigated. Ancestral-area reconstructions were implemented in rasp. Results: Ancestral-area reconstructions provided similar results for alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, placing the origin of Hormogastridae between southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, and highlighting north–central Sardinia as a key ancestral area for diversification of eastern Hormogastridae (Hormogaster redii and H. samnitica). Multiple vicariance and dispersal events were detected, indicating a complex evolutionary history. Sardinian populations of H. samnitica and H. redii were not monophyletic but were related to populations from other areas, suggesting that Sardinia is a more complex biogeographical region than anticipated. Our results identified a phylogenetic relationship between the southern Sardinian fauna and that of Sicily, as well as relationships between the fauna of north-eastern Sardinia and those of the Italian Peninsula and the Tuscan Archipelago. Main conclusions: Our results suggest a complex evolutionary history for hormogastrid earthworms, showing the possibility of many dispersal and vicariance events and multiple faunal interchanges between land-masses, which may reflect the biogeographical complexity of the Mediterranean Basin.
  • Publication
    How to thrive in unstable environments: Gene expression profile of a riparian earthworm under abiotic stress
    (Elsevier, 2022-01-03) Sosa, Irene de; Verdes, Aída; Tilikj, Natasha; Marchán, Daniel F.; Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta
    Nowadays, extreme weather events caused by climate change are becoming more frequent. This leads to the occurrence of extreme habitats to which species must adapt. This challenge becomes crucial for species living in unstable environments, such as the riparian earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra. Its cosmopolitan distribution exposes it to various environmental changes, such as freezing in subarctic regions or droughts in Mediterranean areas. Transcriptional changes under cold and desiccation conditions could therefore shed light on the adaptive mechanisms of this species. An experiment was performed for each condition. In the cold experiment, the temperature was lowered to −14 °C ± 2 °C (compared to 8 °C for control samples), and in the desiccation treatment, humidity was lowered from 60% to 15%. Comparisons of gene expression levels between earthworms under freezing conditions and control earthworms revealed a total of 84 differentially expressed genes and comparisons between the desiccation experiment and the control yielded 163 differentially expressed genes. However, no common responses were found between the two treatments. The results suggest that E. tetraedra can acclimate to low temperatures due to the upregulation of genes involved in glucose accumulation. However, downregulation of the respiratory chain suggests that this earthworm does not tolerate freezing conditions. Under desiccation conditions, genes involved in cell protection from apoptosis and DNA repair were upregulated. In contrast, lipid metabolism was downregulated, presumably to conserve resources by reducing the rate at which they are consumed.
  • Publication
    Bless this phylogeographic mess e Comparative study of Eiseniella tetraedra (Annelida, Oligochaeta) between an Atlantic area and a continental Mediterranean area in Spain
    (Elsevier, 2017-01) Sosa, Irene de; Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María
    Due to the influence of Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, Spain has different climates, from desert to Atlantic. We sampled the parthenogenetic earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra in two different biogeographical zones in Spain, in order to study their genetic diversity and test their potential distinctiveness. Moreover, we evaluated the presence or absence of two different lineages (Eurosiberian and Mediterranean) found in other parthenogenetic earthworms such as Aporrectodea trapezoides and A. rosea. We studied the molecular markers COI, 16S and 28S. E. tetraedra presents a high diversity in Spain (one COI haplotype every two individuals were found) and no clear geographical patterns except for diffuse patterns along the Guadarrama River basin. In contrast, worldwide localities were more homogeneous with low diversity, to be confirmed with further samples. After morphological study, no correlation was found between phylogenetic relationships and the diagnostic characters for the previously described subspecies in E. tetraedra.
  • Publication
    Pinpointing cryptic borders: Fine-scale phylogeography and genetic landscape analysis of the Hormogaster elisae complex (Oligochaeta,Hormogastridae)
    (Elsevier, 2017-07) Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Fernández, Rosa; Sosa, Irene de; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta
    Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula – resulting in 28 new H. elisae collecting points, some of them as close as 760 m from each other- for a higher resolution of the distribution of the cryptic lineages and the relationships between the populations. Seven molecular regions were amplified: mitochondrial subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (COI), 16S rRNA and tRNA Leu, Ala, and Ser (16S t-RNAs), one nuclear ribosomal gene (a fragment of 28S rRNA) and one nuclear protein-encoding gene (histone H3) in order to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Different representation methods of the pairwise divergence in the cytochrome oxidase I sequence (heatmap and genetic landscape graphs) were used to visualize the genetic structure of H. elisae. A nested approach sensu Mairal et al. (2015) (connecting the evolutionary rates of two datasets of different taxonomic coverage) was used to obtain one approximation to a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree based on external Clitellata fossils and a wide molecular dataset. Our results indicate that limited active dispersal ability and ecological or biotic barriers could explain the isolation of the different cryptic lineages, which never co-occur. Rare events of long distance dispersal through hydrochory appear as one of the possible causes of range expansion.
  • Publication
    The lab In A box: A take-out practical experience for an online invertebrate biology course
    (Wiley, 2021-03-12) Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Sánchez Santos, Nuria; Gutiérrez López, Mónica; Cánovas, Rosario G.; Pardos Martínez, Fernando; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.
    Hands-on experience is critical to teaching invertebrate zoology, as students are unfamiliar with many animals and theoretical concepts are sometimes difficult to assimilate. As part of a fully online course, we decided to give students a box of take-home materials so that they could do hands-on work in their homes under the guidance of the teacher or at their own pace following the lecture scripts and presentations. The box contained whole specimens fixed in ethanol for observation and dissection, dried material such as skeletons and shells, and microscope slides. We also included a USB digital microscope to facilitate visualization of details and slides. The experience was very satisfying and proved to be not only a good alternative for mandatory online classes in times of pandemic, but also an interesting resource to supplement face-toface classes.
  • Publication
    Evaluating evolutionary pressures and phylogenetic signal in earthworms: a case study – the number of typhlosole lamellae in Hormogastridae (Annelida,Oligochaeta)
    (Oxford University Press, 2016-09) Marchán, Daniel F.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Sosa, Irene de; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.
    Rarely have phylogenetic comparative methods been used to study the correlation between phenotypic traits and environmental variables in invertebrates. With the widespread convergence and conservativeness of the morphological characters used in earthworms, these comparative methods could be useful to improve our understanding of their evolution and systematics. One of the most prominent morphological characters in the family Hormogastridae, endemic to Mediterranean areas, is their multilamellar typhlosole, traditionally thought to be an adaptation to soils poor in nutrients. We tested the correlation of body size and soil characteristics with the number of typhlosole lamellae through a phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) analysis. An ultrametric phylogenetic hypothesis was built with a 2580-bp DNA sequence from 90 populations, used in combination with three morphological and 11 soil variables. The best-supported model, based on the Akaike information criterion, was obtained by optimizing the parameters lambda (k), kappa (j), and delta (d). The phylogenetic signal was strong for the number of typhlosole lamellae and average body weight, and was lower for soil variables. Increasing body weight appeared to be the main evolutionary pressure behind the increase in the number of typhlosole lamellae, with soil texture and soil richness having a weaker but significant effect. Information on the evolutionary rate of the number of typhlosole lamellae suggested that the early evolution of this character could have strongly shaped its variability, as is found in an adaptive radiation. This work highlights the importance of implementing the phylogenetic comparative method to test evolutionary hypotheses in invertebrate taxa.
  • Publication
    Persistent pesticides: effects of endosulfan at the molecular level on the aquatic invertebrate Chironomus riparius
    (Springer, 2021-02-19) Muñiz-González, A. B.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Martínez-Guitarte, J. L.
    Although banned in multiple areas, due to its persistence in the environment, endosulfan constitutes a significant environmental concern. In this work, fourth instar Chironomus riparius larvae were exposed at environmentally relevant endosulfan concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L for 24 h to analyze the possible effects of this acaricide on gene expression and enzymatic activity. Transcriptional changes were studied through the implementation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction array with 42 genes related to several metabolic pathways (endocrine system, detoxification response, stress response, DNA reparation, and immune system). Moreover, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenoloxidase (PO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were assessed. The five pathways were differentially altered by endosulfan exposure with significant changes in the E93, Dis, MAPR, Met, InR, GSTd3, GSTt3, MRP1, hsp70, hsp40, hsp24, ATM, PARP, Proph, and Def genes. Besides, all of the measured enzymatic activities were modified, with increased activity of GST, followed by PO and AChE. In summary, the results reflected the effects provoked in C. riparius at molecular level despite the absence of lethality. These data raise concerns about the strong alteration on different metabolic routes despite the low concentrations used. Therefore, new risk assessment strategies should consider include the effects at the sub-organismal level as endpoints in addition to the classical ecologically relevant parameters (such as survival). This endeavor will facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of toxicants in the environment.
  • Publication
    The era of reference genomes in conservation genomics
    (Cell Press, 2022-03) Formenti, Giulio; Theissinger, Kathrin; Fernandes, Carlos; Bista, Iliana; Bombarely, Aureliano; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ciofi, Claudio; Crottini, Angelica; Godoy, José A.; Höglund, Jacob; Malukiewicz, Joanna; Mouton, Alice; Oomen, Rebekah A.; Paez, Sadye; Palsbøll, Per J.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ruiz-López, María J.; Svarda, Hannes; Theofanopoulou, Constantina; De Vries, Jan; Waldvoge, Ann-Marie; Zhang, Guojie; Mazzoni, Camila J.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Bálint, Miklós; Aghayan, Sargis A.; Alioto, Tyler S.; Almudi, Isabel; Alvarez, Nadir; Alves, Paulo C.; Amorim, Isabel R.; Antunes, Agostinho; Arribas, Paula; Baldrian, Petr; Berg, Paul R.; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Böhne, Astrid; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Boštjančić, Ljudevit L.; Boussau, Bastien; Breton, Catherine M.; Buzan, Elena; Campos, Paula F.; Carreras, Carlos; Castro, L. FIlipe; Chueca, Luis J.; Conti, Elena; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Croll, Daniel; Cunha, Mónica V; Delsuc, Frédéric; Dennis, Alice B.; Dimitrov, Rui Faria; Favre, Adrien; Fedrigo, Olivier D.; Fernández, Dimitar; Faria, Rui; Fedrigo, Olivier D.; Fernández, Rosa; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Flot, Jean-François; Gabaldón, Ton; Galea Agius, Dolores R.; Gallo, Guido R; Giani, Alice M.; M. Thomas, P. Gilbert; Grebenc, Tine; Guschanski, Katerina; Guyot, Romain; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Heintzman, Peter D.; Heinze, Berthold; Hiller, Michael; Husemann, Martin; Iannucci, Alessio; Irisarri, Iker; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Jentoft, Sissel; Klinga, Peter; Kloch, Agnieszka; Kratochwil, Claudius F.; Kusche, Henrik; Layton, Kara KS; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Lerat, Emmanuelle; Liti, Gianni; Manousaki, Tereza; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Matos-Marav, Pável; Matschiner, Michae; Maumus, Florian; McCartney, Ann M.; Meiri, Sha; Melo-Ferreira, José; Mengualk, Ximo; Monaghan, Michael T.; Montagna, Matteo; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Neiber, Marco T.; Violaine, Nicolas; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Ozretić, Petar; Palero, Ferran; Pârvulescu, Lucian; Pascual, Marta; Paulo, Octávio S.; Pavlek, Martina; Pegueroles, Cinta; Pellissier, Loïc; Pesole, Graziano; Primmer, Craig R.; Riesgo, Ana; Rüber, Lukas; Rubolini, Diego; Salvi, Daniele; Seehausen, Ole; Seidel, Matthias; Secomandi, Simona; Studer, Bruno; Theodoridis, Spyros; Thines, Marco; Urban, Lara; Vasemägi, Anti; Vella, Adriana; Vella, Noel; Vernes, Sonja C.; Vernesi, Cristiano; Vieites, David R.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Wheat, Christopher W.; Wörheide, Gert; Wurm, Yannick; Zammit, Gabrielle
    Progress in genome sequencing now enables the large-scale generation of reference genomes. Various international initiatives aim to generate reference genomes representing global biodiversity. These genomes provide unique insights into genomic diversity and architecture, thereby enabling comprehensive analyses of population and functional genomics, and are expected to revolutionize conservation genomics.
  • Publication
    Anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors drive the diversity and distribution of earthworms in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal)
    (Elsevier, 2019-06-19) Talavera, J. A.; Cunha, Luis; Arévalo Pérez, Julio; Talavera, I. P.; Kille, Peter; Novo Rodríguez, Marta
    We present an evaluation of earthworm fauna in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal) revealing that it is rich in species in relation to its size and nature. Four families (Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Rhinodrilidae), 15 genera and 27 species were inventoried. About 74% were Palearctic species and 26% were Intertropical, mainly invasive earthworms originating from South-East Asia, of which Amynthas corticis Kingberg, 1867 was most dominant. The first comprehensive checklist of São Miguel earthworms is detailed, and the outdated nomenclature is improved, unifying synonymous taxa such as Lumbricus azoricus Eisen, 1869 and Allolobophoridella eiseni Levinsen, 1884. Seven new earthworm species records are given, highlighting Lumbricus friendi Cognetti, 1904 and Amynthas diffringens Baird, 1869 as cited for the first time in Macaronesia, and therefore expanding their known geographic range to the northern border of this region. Moreover, richness and composition of species were evaluated in relation to environmental and anthropogenic characteristics, including soil properties, altitude, land use intensity or distance to urban nuclei. Our results demonstrated that soil pH affected the establishment of species and that organic matter is positively associated with abundance of some non-native lumbricids (e.g. the anecic Octodrilus complanatus Dugés, 1828) and negatively related to richness and abundance of exotic species such as Amynthas corticis, Amynthas gracilis Kingberg, 1867 and Pontoscolex corethrurus Müller, 1857. Results suggested that land use intensity, represented as five categories ranging from undisturbed sites with native vegetation to sites under intensive agriculture exploitation, is a good predictor of species composition. Higher values of diversity and density of Intertropical species were found in more intensively exploited locations. Moreover, the Palearctic lumbricids, although present in all the disturbance categories tested, were the most diverse group at higher altitudes. The species Dendrodrilus rubidus tenuis Eisen, 1864 and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843, with narrow distribution range, showed a trend towards natural, non-intensive (NI) and low intensity (LI) systems. Our results indicate that anthropogenic disturbance and altitude are the main drivers of earthworm diversity on the island of São Miguel, making these animals good indicators for land use intensity. Therefore, earthworm surveys may help design conservation programs in protected areas.