Person: Martín Chivelet, Javier
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Now showing 1 - 10 of 82
PublicationPetrografía de inclusiones fluidas en espeleotemas: comparación con calcitas no espeleotémicas(Sociedad Geológica de España., 2016) López Elorza, Maialen; Muñoz García, Mª Belén; González Acebrón, Laura; Martín Chivelet, JavierLos espeleotemas presentan inclusiones fluidas que pueden utilizarse como proxy paleoclimático ya que sus características dependen de las condiciones físicoquímicas y ambientales bajo las que se generaron. En esta línea, su caracterización petrográfica aparece como una tarea fundamental, previa a cualquier otro tipo de análisis. En este trabajo se presenta el estudio petrográfico de las inclusiones fluidas de dos coladas de Cueva del Cobre (Palencia), que ha permitido clasificarlas en siete tipos en función de su morfología (thorn shaped, boudin shaped, elongate, amorphous, oval shaped, pyriform y round shaped). Todas ellas son monofásicas líquidas. Dependiendo del tipo de morfología de las inclusiones, su posición en relación al cristal encajante es variable, siendo las elongated y thorn shaped exclusivamente intercristalinas, y todas las demás intracristalinas. Un análisis comparativo con inclusiones descritas en calcitas no espeleotémicas revela que las inclusiones fluidas elongated, amorphous y oval shaped son también comunes en esas calcitas, mientras que las pyriform y las boudin shaped no han sido descritas hasta ahora. PublicationQuantitative analysis of accommodation patterns in carbonate platforms: an example from the mid-Cretaceous of SE Spain(Elsevier, 2003) Martín Chivelet, JavierFor sequence stratigraphic analysis of extensive carbonate platforms (hundreds of kilometres wide) developed in greenhouse climates on broad, passive margins, less emphasis should be placed on large-scale seismic geometries, and more attention paid to sequence stratigraphic correlation of stratigraphic sections based usually on isolated outcrops. To this end, quantitative analysis of accommodation emerges as a simple, useful tool, that allows detailed architectural reconstructions, regional chronostratigraphical correlation and systems tract interpretation. In this paper, a quantitative analysis of accommodation was applied to the wide platforms that developed in the southern passive continental margin of Iberia during the mid-Cretaceous (late Albian to early middle Cenomanian interval). This analysis was based on several integrated techniques including: (1) construction of total accommodation curves with the aid of backstripping techniques for calculating decompacted sedimentary accumulation through time, (2) mathematical analysis of these curves and characterisation of second- and third-order accommodation patterns, and (3) analysis of parasequence stacking patterns in peritidal cyclic successions by means of Fischer plots. By applying these techniques to eight individual sections logged at the decimetre scale in outcrops of the External Zones of the Betic orogenic belt, it was possible to characterise the second- and third-order accommodation signal for this interval in the basin. The second-order curve defines a long-term sigmoidal pattern of nearly six million years, with low rates of accommodation generation in the first and the last part of the interval, and high rates in the mid-interval. The third-order signal defines six accommodation events of one million years average duration, which controlled the development of six successive depositional sequences and their systems tracts. On the basis of this new sequence stratigraphic framework, a high-resolution, 2-D platform transect, showing the spatial distribution of facies, was erected and analysed. The results notably complete previous qualitative sequence stratigraphic data on the platform and contribute to a better understanding of the nature of systems tracts and their boundaries in response to overlapping of second- and third-order accommodation patterns. PublicationMegapixel multi-elemental imaging by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, a technology with considerable potential for paleoclimate studies(Nature, 2017) Cáceres, Jorge Omar; Pelascini, F.; Motto-Ros, V.; Moncayo, Samuel; Trichard, F.; Panczer, G.; Marín Roldán, A.; Cruz, J.A; Coronado, I.; Martín Chivelet, JavierPaleoclimate studies play a crucial role in understanding past and future climates and their environmental impacts. Current methodologies for performing highly sensitive elemental analysis at micrometre spatial resolutions are restricted to the use of complex and/or not easily applied techniques, such as synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis (μ-SRXRF), nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (nano-SIMS) or laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP-MS). Moreover, the analysis of large samples (>few cm²) with any of these methods remains very challenging due to their relatively low acquisition speed (~1–10 Hz), and because they must be operated in vacuum or controlled atmosphere. In this work, we proposed an imaging methodology based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, to perform fast multi-elemental scanning of large geological samples with high performance in terms of sensitivity (ppm-level), lateral resolution (up to 10 μm) and operating speed (100 Hz). This method was successfully applied to obtain the first megapixel images of large geological samples and yielded new information, not accessible using other techniques. These results open a new perspective into the use of laser spectroscopy in a variety of geochemical applications. PublicationContribution to knowledge of the last dinosaur footprints in Europe. Persistence of ornithopods in the upper Maastrichtian of SE Spain(Elsevier, 2016-01) Herrero, Cayetano; Herrero, Emilio; Martín Chivelet, Javier; Pérez Lorente, FelixIn the locality of Rambla de los Gavilanes (Betic Chain Murcia, Spain), six new outcrops with dinosaur footprints are reported from an uppermost Cretaceous succession of coastal marine deposits. Four of these sites are found in the upper part of the lower Maastrichtian and the other two in the upper Maastrichtian, these latter located only a few meters below the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary (K/Pg). Traces appear as impressions or as natural casts, on tabular limestone beds consisting of micritic carbonate facies, these deposited in coastal marine areas that include a variety of environments (coastal lakes, tidal flats, salt marshes, and shallow coastal lakes). Two main types of traces have been recognized, respectively attributed to sauropod footprints and large ornithopod footprints with remarkable pointed hoof marks. The Maastrichtian sites with large ornithopod footprints in Europe are reported from Spain, Poland and Romania. Sauropod (titanosaurian), theropod (Irenesauripus and other undetermined theropods), and ornithopod footprints have been found at sites located up to 20 m below the K/Pg boundary. The Spanish dinosaur ichnites known closest to the K/Pg boundary are in the Pyrenean upper Maastrichtian, and are tridactyl, theropod and ornithopod (Hadrosauropodus and Amblydactylus) footprints. In this work, the assignation of the Rambla de los Gavilanes ornithopod footprints has been made following the recommended synthesis in several recent papers which reduce the large ornithopod ichnogenus to four. PublicationStable oxygen isotope analysis of Phorcus lineatus (da Costa, 1778) as a proxy for foraging seasonality during the Mesolithic in northern Iberia(Springer, 2019-10) García Escárzaga, Asier; Gutiérrez Zugasti, Igor; Cobo, Adolfo; Cuenca Solana, David; Martín Chivelet, Javier; Roberts, Patrick; González-Morales, Manuel R.The Mesolithic period in the Cantabrian region, a coastal area located in northern Spain, is characterised by a marked increase in the human use of coastal resources in comparison with previous periods, resulting in the formation of so-called “shell middens”. Archaeological investigations have provided insights into the formation processes of these shell middens, as well as long-term changes in human exploitation of different marine resources and the relationship of foraging strategies to past climate changes. However, efforts to reconstruct the key environmental factor governing coastal subsistence and foraging resilience, the seasonal availability and use of different marine resources, have been limited in the region and, indeed, across coastal Mesolithic Europe more widely. Here, we use stable oxygen isotope analysis of Phorcus lineatus (da Costa, 1778), one of the most widespread molluscs in northern Iberian mesolithic coastal sites, in order to determine the season in which humans collected key coastal resources at the site of EL Mazo (Llanes, Asturias). We demonstrate that P. lineatus was exclusively collected in late autumn, winter and early spring. An experimental programme, in which modern P. lineatus specimens were collected in situ over the course of three years, established that relative meat yield varied within this species throughout the annual cycle, with higher relative meat yield during colder months. We argue that mollusc collection patterns were driven by a cost-benefit principle during the Mesolithic in the Cantabrian region and human populations had intimate knowledge of the seasonal developmental cycles of exploited marine taxa. This also highlights the importance of developing intra-annual records of resource use and climate change if coastal foraging is to be properly understood in prehistory. PublicationMiddle-Upper Triassic carbonate platforms in Minorca (Balearic islands): Implications for Western Tethys correlations(Elsevier, 2014-08-01) Escudero Mozo, María José; Martín Chivelet, Javier; Goy, Antonio; López Gómez, José LuisIn order to progress in the knowledge of the Middle to Upper Triassic evolution of the western Tethys realm, an integrated approach which includes new sedimentological, sequence stratigraphic and biostratigraphic data, has been accomplished in the carbonate marine successions (Muschelkalk facies) of that age in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). The new biostratigraphy, which includes six successive ammonoid biozones, allowed to assign these carbonate successions to the uppermost Anisian–lower Carnian interval. The integration of the new chronostratigraphic framework with the sedimentological analysis allowed to recognize five main successive stages of carbonate platform evolution: 1) Initial marine transgression and shallow ramp development (uppermost Anisian); 2) Carbonate ramp drowning (Anisian–Ladinian boundary); 3) Prevalence of open sea conditions (Ladinian–early Carnian); 4) Abrupt sea-level drop (intra-lower Carnian) and; 5) Shallow carbonate ramp and transition to sabkha systems (Keuper facies). Furthermore, the sequence stratigraphic analysis allowed to divide some of these stages into depositional sequences. Minorca was located in the westernmost Tethys area during the Triassic, in a key paleogeographic location close to the present-day Iberia, Sardinia and the Cottian and Southern Alps. The new data have allowed an interregional comparative analysis among these areas, with recognition of major suprarregional events and episodes in the framework of the western Tethys evolution. PublicationContornitas calcáreas en el Cretácico terminal de Caravaca (Dominio Subbético). Implicaciones paleogeográficas(Sociedad Geológica de España., 2001) Martín Chivelet, Javier; Chacón Pichaco, Beatriz; Fregenal Martínez, María AntoniaThis paper focuses on the deep marine carbonates of late Campanian to lower Maastricht!an age that crop out in the Subbetic Zone near Caravaca (Murcia province). Their sedimentological analysis allows to recognize a thick succession of dm-scale levels of calcareous "grainy" contourites alternating with fine-grained pelagites/hemipelagites. Those contourites, characterized by the abundance and variety of traction structures (horizontal and low angle bedding; cross-bedding, mud offshots, flaser bedding) together with other diagnostic features as internal erosive surfaces, inverse and normal grading at various scales, erosive bases, sharp top contacts), are interpreted as produced by bottom currents that were particularly intense during that time in the Betic basin, probably as a consequence of the onset of the contraction in the Mesozoic basins of Iberia. The Alpine convergence caused the closure in the latest Cretaceous of most former seaways (Pyrenean and Iberian basins) between the Atlantic and the Tethys oceans, and induced the progressive narrowing of the remaining seaway between Africa and Iberia. PublicationStrong links between Saharan dust fluxes, monsoon strength, and North Atlantic climate during the last 5000 years(American Association for the Advancement of Science ( AAAS), 2021-06-25) Cruz, J. A.; McDermott, Frank; Turrero Jiménez, María Jesús; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martín Chivelet, JavierDespite the multiple impacts of mineral aerosols on global and regional climate and the primary climatic control on atmospheric dust fluxes, dust-climate feedbacks remain poorly constrained, particularly at submillennial time scales, hampering regional and global climate models. We reconstruct Saharan dust fluxes over Western Europe for the last 5000 years, by means of speleothem strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) and karst modeling. The record reveals a long-term increase in Saharan dust flux, consistent with progressive North Africa aridification and strengthening of Northern Hemisphere latitudinal climatic gradients. On shorter, centennial to millennial scales, it shows broad variations in dust fluxes, in tune with North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere patterns and with monsoonal variability. Dust fluxes rapidly increase before (and peaks at) Late Holocene multidecadal- to century-scale cold climate events, including those around 4200, 2800, and 1500 years before present, suggesting the operation of previously unknown strong dust-climate negative feedbacks preceding these episodes. PublicationPalaeoenvironmental significance of middle Oxfordian deep marine deposits from La Manga Formation, Neuquén Basin, Argentina(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2014-10-30) Palma, R.M.; Bressan, G.S.; Kietzmann, D.A.; Riccardi, A.C.; Martín Chivelet, Javier; López Gómez, JoséThe Callovian-Oxfordian of the Neuquén Basin (Argentina) is characterized by an extensive marine carbonate system (La Manga Formation) with a predominance of shallow and middle ramp deposits, although locally in tectonically controlled settings, deeper deposits also formed. These middle Oxfordian deeper deposits consist of mudstone-wackestone carbonates alternating with black shales and show marked centimetre-scale rhythmicity, probably controlled by the Earth’s orbit parameters, mainly precession and eccentricity. The present study was designed to examine these deposits in terms of their sedimentology, geochemistry, and small-scale stratigraphy in Arroyo Los Blancos, southern Mendoza Province, where they are exceptionally well exposed and preserved. Results indicate that the sediments were deposited in an anoxic to dysoxic, relatively deep, sea-floor environment as revealed by the presence of: a) organic-rich shales, b) undisrupted lamination in most facies, c) pyrite framboids, and d) absence or scarcity of trace fossils and benthic fauna. Thin beds of graded wackestone-packstone and accumulations of thin shells of Bositra bivalves indicate sporadic reworking of the sea floor by weak currents. Organic petrology, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and thermal maturity indicators were used to characterize TOC and different types of organic matter. Low pyrolysis S yields along with low hydrogen indices suggest poor kerogen convertibility. Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 with an average of 2.70. The thermal alteration index (TAI) was 4+(5), indicating overmaturity. A tectono-sedimentary model is proposed for these deposits. According to this model, the relatively deep, organic-matter rich facies of La Manga Formation would have been deposited in the deepest zones of topographic lows controlled by tilting and differential subsidence of tectonic blocks bounded by normal faults.These faults were probably inherited from previous extensional tectonics of Late Triassic - Early Jurassic age. PublicationLos Espeleotemas y el cambio climatico: La información climática se transmite al interior de la cueva a través de un eficaz medio de transporte, el agua(Enresa, 2017) Martín Chivelet, JavierLos depósitos minerales de nuestras cuevas, como las estalagmitas, nos dan claves sobre los cambios climáticos y sus implicaciones ambientales a nivel global y regional. ¿cómo es posible que esas rocas preserven señales climáticas de altísima resolución a pesar de haberse formado en ambientes muy aislados de la superficie?