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TOI-1201 b: A mini-Neptune transiting a bright and moderately young M dwarf

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2021-12-10
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We present the discovery of a transiting mini-Neptune around TOI-1201, a relatively bright and moderately young early M dwarf (J approximate to 9.5 mag, similar to 600-800 Myr) in an equal-mass similar to 8 arcsecond-wide binary system, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, along with follow-up transit observations. With an orbital period of 2.49 d, TOI-1201 b is a warm mini-Neptune with a radius of R-b = 2.415 +/- 0.090 R-circle plus. This signal is also present in the precise radial velocity measurements from CARMENES, confirming the existence of the planet and providing a planetary mass of M-b = 6.28 +/- 0.88 M-circle plus and, thus, an estimated bulk density of 2.45(-0.42)(+0.48) g cm(-3). The spectroscopic observations additionally show evidence of a signal with a period of 19 d and a long periodic variation of undetermined origin. In combination with ground-based photometric monitoring from WASP-South and ASAS-SN, we attribute the 19 d signal to the stellar rotation period (P-rot = 19-23 d), although we cannot rule out that the variation seen in photometry belongs to the visually close binary companion. We calculate precise stellar parameters for both TOI-1201 and its companion. The transiting planet is anexcellent target for atmosphere characterization (the transmission spectroscopy metric is 97(-16)(+21)) with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. It is also feasible to measure its spin-orbit alignment via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect using current state-of-the-art spectrographs with submeter per second radial velocity precision.
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© D. Kossakowski et al. 2021. Artículo firmado por 66 autores. Part of this work was supported by the German Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) project number Ts 17/2-1. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA-4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Institut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. This work was based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (CSIC-INTA). We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" and "María de Maeztu" awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-20170709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program (ERC Advanced Grant Origins 83 24 28), the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme, the DFG priority program SPP 1992 "Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets (JE 701/5-1)", the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program via ERC Advanced Grant Origins 832428 and under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant 895525. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the MidScale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. We thank Brian Mason for providing us WDS data.
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