Advances in mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted stimuli-responsive drug delivery: an update

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Introduction: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are outstanding nanoplatforms for drug delivery. Herein, the most recent advances to turn MSN-based carriers into minimal side effect drug delivery agents are covered. Areas covered: This review summarizes the scientific advances dealing with MSNs for targeted and stimuli-responsive drug delivery since 2015. Delivery aspects to diseased tissues together with approaches to obtain smart MSNs able to respond to internal or external stimuli and their applications are here described. Special emphasis is done on the combination of two or more stimuli on the same nanoplatform and on combined drug therapy. Expert opinion: The use of MSNs in nanomedicine is a promising research field because they are outstanding platforms for treating different pathologies. This is possible thanks to their structural, chemical, physical and biological properties. However, there are certain issues that should be overcome to improve the suitability of MSNs for clinical applications. All materials must be properly characterized prior to their in vivo evaluation; furthermore, preclinical in vivo studies need to be standardized to demonstrate the MSNs clinical translation potential.
RESEARCHER ID L-2854-2014 (Rafael Castillo Romero) ORCID 0000-0003-1957-3098 (Rafael Castillo Romero) RESEARCHER ID B-5081-2017 (Daniel Lozano Borregón) ORCID 0000-0001-5902-9201 (Daniel Lozano Borregón) RESEARCHER ID K-4773-2015 (Blanca González Ortiz) ORCID 0000-0002-0493-6071 (Blanca González Ortiz) RESEARCHER ID K-3719-2014 (Miguel Manzano García) ORCID 0000-0001-6238-6111 (Miguel Manzano García) RESEARCHER ID M-9921-2014 (Isabel Izquierdo Barba) ORCID 0000-0002-4139-4646 (Isabel Izquierdo Barba) RESEARCHER ID M-3378-2014 (María Vallet Regí) ORCID 0000-0002-6104-4889 (María Vallet Regí)