An ultra-short-period transiting super-Earth orbiting the M3 dwarf TOI-1685

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Dynamical histories of planetary systems, as well as the atmospheric evolution of highly irradiated planets, can be studied by characterizing the ultra-short-period planet population, which the TESS mission is particularly well suited to discover. Here, we report on the follow-up of a transit signal detected in the TESS sector 19 photometric time series of the M3.0 V star TOI-1685 (2MASS J04342248+4302148). We confirm the planetary nature of the transit signal, which has a period of P_(b) = 0.6691403^(+0.0000023)_(−0.0000021) d, using precise radial velocity measurements taken with the CARMENES spectrograph. From the joint photometry and radial velocity analysis, we estimate the following parameters for TOI-1685 b: a mass of M_(b) = 3.78^(+0.63)_(−0.63) Mꙩ, a radius of R_(b) = 1.70^(+0.07)_(−0.07) Rꙩ, which together result in a bulk density of ρ_(b) = 4.21^(+0.95)_(−0.82) g cm^(−3) , and an equilibrium temperature of T_(eq) = 1069^(+16)_(−16) K. TOI-1685 b is the least dense ultra-short-period planet around an M dwarf known to date. TOI-1685 b is also one of the hottest transiting super-Earth planets with accurate dynamical mass measurements, which makes it a particularly attractive target for thermal emission spectroscopy. Additionally, we report with moderate evidence an additional non-transiting planet candidate in the system, TOI-1685 [c], which has an orbital period of P_(c) = 9.02^(+0.10)_(−0.12) d.
© ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 54 autores. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme, “la Caixa” Foundation (100010434), European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie SkłodowskaCurie grant agreement No. 847648 (LCF/BQ/PI20/11760023), a University Research Support Grant from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, JSPS KAKENHI (JP15H02063, JP18H01265, JP18H05439, JP18H05442, and JP22000005), JST PRESTO (JPMJPR1775), UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/R000824/1), and NASA (NNX17AG24G) This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide, with the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, financed by Université de Montréal, Université Laval, the National Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la Nature et les technologies, and the Canada Economic Development program, and with the LCOGT network. LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program , which is funded by NSF. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research also made use of AstroImageJ, and TAPIR, and the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. We thank the referee for the careful report and Carlos Cifuentes for computing Lbol. Special thanks to Ismael Pessa for all his support through this work and Matías Jones for being always available to answer questions from an old student and friend.
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