Las cadenas operativas líticas de El Barandiallu (Asturias, España): adaptación y variabilidad tecnológica en el contexto del Musteriense cantábrico

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Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi
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En este trabajo se presenta el estudio completo del conjunto lítico musteriense de El Barandiallu, con más de 1400 piezas, formado por materiales recogidos en superficie, recuperados en 1988 y 1989, y por materiales procedentes de una excavación arqueológica, realizada en el año 2012. Este conjunto lítico se sitúa como uno de los más interesantes entre los localizados al aire libre en la región cantábrica. A la hora de analizar el conjunto e interpretar la ocupación humana que ha dado lugar al mismo, se plantean interesantes debates sobre la diferencia de los yacimientos musterienses en cueva y al aire libre, en cuanto a su composición tipológica y sus características tecnológicas, que no solo nos plantea cuestiones funcionales, sino también nos acerca a un viejo e interesante debate sobre la caracterización tecnotipológica del Musteriense en la región, sus relaciones con el mundo pirenaico y aquitano y la existencia o no de conjuntos equiparables, coetáneos y parcialmente compatibles con el MTA.
More than 1400 lithics, which is formed by surface findings recovered between 1988 and 1989, as well as materials collected in an archaeological excavation developed in 2012. This Mousterian lithic assemblage stands as one of the most interesting among open air sites in the Cantabrian region. Likewise, it is the only case studied in the north of the Iberian Peninsula of this type of assemblage in which a taphonomical process caused by modern and contemporaneous agricultural action has been identified. When analysing the assemblage and interpreting its human occupation, interesting debates about the difference between Mousterian openair and cave sites, their typological composition and their technological characteristics –which not only consider functional issues, but also bringing us closer to an old and interesting debate about the techno-typological characterization of the Mousterian in the area, its relationships with the Pyrenees and Aquitaine and the existence or nonexistence of comparable, contemporary and partially compatible with the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MAT)-, are considered. This settlement seems to adjust to the characteristic of a temporary occupation, with a high degree of closeness in the procurement of resources (most of the identified raw materials are local) and in the Chaîne opératoires developed,although it has been possible to identify a different a different processing in relation to the Chaîne opératoire, both at a raw material level and a technological level. Furthermore, it has been also possible to observe the existence of complete and amortized Chaîne opératoires that underpin the abovementioned immediacy, while at the same time the transportation of lithics from other relative close (macrotools) and further away places (pieces of flint) has been identified. Thus, we can stay that in the case of El Barandiallu the technological variability perceived in this assemblage may be the consequence of the type of functionalities and circumstances of the open-air human occupation, in relation to the occupations in caves, which are more recurrent and less ephemeral.
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