From trained immunity in allergy to trained immunity‐based allergen vaccines.

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Innate immune cells experience long lasting metabolic and epigenetic changes after an encounter with specific stimuli. This facilitates enhanced immune responses upon secondary exposition to both the same and unrelated pathogens, a process termed trained immunity. Trained immunity- based vaccines (TIbV) are vaccines able to induce innate immune memory, thus conferring heterologous protection against a broad range of pathogens. While trained immunity has been well documented in the con-text of infections and multiple immune- mediated diseases, the role of innate immune memory and its contribution to the initiation and maintenance of chronic allergic dis-eases remains poorly understood. Over the last years, different studies attempting to uncover the role of trained immunity in allergy have emerged. Exposition to en-vironmental factors impacting allergy development such as allergens or viruses in-duces the reprogramming of innate immune cells to acquire a more pro-inflammatory phenotype in the context of asthma or food allergy. Several studies have convincingly demonstrated that prevention of viral infections using TIbV contributes to reduce wheezing attacks in children, which represent a high- risk factor for asthma develop-ment later in life. Innate immune cells trained with specific stimuli might also acquire anti- inflammatory features and promote tolerance, which may have important impli-cations for chronic inflammatory diseases such as allergies. Recent findings showed that allergoid- mannan conjugates, which are next generation vaccines for allergen- specific immunotherapy (AIT), are able to reprogram monocytes into tolerogenic den-dritic cells by mechanisms depending on metabolic and epigenetic rewiring. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of trained immunity in allergy will pave the way for the design of novel trained immunity- based allergen vaccines as potential alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.
CRUE-CSIC (Acuerdos Transformativos 2022)