Publication: Intraexaminer repeatability and agreement in stereoacuity measurements made in young adults
Full text at PDC
Advisors (or tutors)
Press of International Journal of Ophthalmology
·AIM: To determine the repeatability and agreement of stereoacuity measurements made using some of the most widely used clinical tests: Frisby, TNO, Randot and Titmus. ·METHODS: Stereoacuity was measured in two different sessions separated by a time interval of at least 24h but no longer than 1wk in 74 subjects of mean age 20.6y using the four methods. The study participants were divided into two groups: subjects with normal binocular vision and subjects with abnormal binocular vision. ·RESULTS: Best repeatability was shown by the Frisby and Titmus [coefficient of repeatability (COR): 依13 and 依12s arc respectively] in the subjects with normal binocular vision though a clear ceiling effect was noted. In the subjects with abnormal binocular vision, best repeatability was shown by the Frisby (COR: 依69s arc) and Randot (COR: 依72s arc). In both groups, the TNO test showed poorest agreement with the other tests. ·CONCLUSION: Therepeatabilityof stereoacuitymeasures was low in subjects with poor binocular vision yet fairly good in subjects with normal binocular vision with the exception of the TNO test. The reduced agreement detected between the tests indicates they cannot be used interchangeably.
1 Kuang T, Hsu W, Chou CK, Tsai SY, Chou P. Impact of stereopsis on quality of life. Eye (Lond) 2005;19(5):540-545 2 Fawcett SL, Wang YZ, Birch EE. The critical period for susceptibility of human stereopsis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46(2):521-525 3 Saladin JJ. Stereopsis from a performance perspective. Optom Vis Sci 2005;82(3):186-205 4 Richardson SR, Wright CM, Hrisos S, Buck D, Clarke MP. Stereoacuity in unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool screening: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46(1):150-154 5 Lee SJ, Kim WS. Factors influencing stereoacuity levels after surgery to correct unilateral developmental cataracts in children. Int J Ophthalmol 2013;6(3):331-336 6 Holmes JM, Leske DA, Hatt SR, Brodsky MC, Mohney BG. Stability of near stereoacuity in childhood intermittent exotropia. J AAPOS 2011;15(5):462-467 7 Stewart CE, Wallace MP, Stephens DA, Fielder AR, Moseley MJ; MOTAS Cooperative. The effect of amblyopia treatment on stereoacuity. J AAPOS 2013;17(2):166-173 8 Simons K. A comparison fo the Frisby, Random-Dot E, TNO, and Randot circles stereotests in screening and office use. Arch Ophthalmol 1981;99(3):446-452 9 Westheimer G. Clinical evaluation of stereopsis. Vision Res 2013;90:38-42 10 Hall C. The relationship between clinical stereotest. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1982;2(2):135-143 11 O\'Connor AR, Birch EE, Anderson S, Draper H; FSOS Research Group. The functional significance of stereopsis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51(4):2019-2023 12 Cooper J, Warshowsky J. Lateral displacement as a response cue in the Titmus Stereo Test. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54(8):537-541 13 Fawcett SL, Birch EE. Validity of the Titmus and Randot circles tasks in children with known binocular vision disorders. J AAPOS 2003;7(5):333-338 14 Reinecke RD, Simons K. A new stereoscopic test for amblyopia screening. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;78(4):714-721 15 Fricke TR, Siderov J. Stereopsis, stereotests, and their relation to vision screening and clinical practice. Clin Exp Optom 1997;80(5):165-172 16 Manny RE, Martinez AT, Fern KD. Testing stereopsis in the preschool child: is it clinically useful? J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1991;28(4):223-231 17 Martínez FM, Pons AM. Fundamentos de visión binocular. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia; 2004 18 Simons K, Elhatton K. Artifacts in fusion and stereopsis testing based on red/green dichoptic image separation. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1994;31(5):290-297 19 Yamada T, Scheiman M, Mitchell GL. A comparison of stereopsis testing between red/green targets and polarized targets in children with normal binocular vision. Optometry 2008;79(3):138-142 20 Marsh WR, Rawlings SC, Mumma JV. Evaluation of clinical stereoacuity test. Ophthalmology 1980;87(12):1265-1272 21 Webber AL, Wood JM, Gole GA, Brown B. The effect of amblyopia on fine motor skills in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49(2):594-603 22 Adams WE, Leske DA, Hatt SR, Holmes JM. Defining real change in measures of stereoacuity. Ophthalmology 2009;116(2):281-285 23 Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986;1(8476):307-310 24 Fawcett SL. An evaluation of the agreement between contour-based circles and random dot-based near stereoacuity tests. J AAPOS 2005;9(6):572-578 25 Gantz L. Are local and global stereograms processed by separate mechanisms? Houston: University of Houston; 2009 26 Tanaka H, Ohzawa I. Neural basis for stereopsis from second-order contrast cues. J Neurosci 2006;26(16):4370-4382 27 Rosner J, Clift GD. The validity of the Frisby stereotest as a measure of precise stereoacuity. J Am Optom Assoc 1984;55(7):505-506