The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: No evidence for a super-Earth in a 2-day orbit around GJ 1151

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Caballero, J. A.
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Context. The interaction between Earth-like exoplanets and the magnetic field of low-mass host stars are considered to produce weak emission signals at radio frequencies. A study using LOFAR data announced the detection of radio emission from the mid M-type dwarf GJ 1151 that could potentially arise from a close-in terrestrial planet. Recently, the presence of a 2.5-Mꙩ planet orbiting GJ 1151 with a 2-day period has been claimed using 69 radial velocities (RVs) from the HARPS-N and HPF instruments. Aims. We have obtained 70 new high-precision RV measurements in the framework of the CARMENES M-dwarf survey and use these data to confirm the presence of the claimed planet and to place limits on possible planetary companions in the GJ 1151 system. Methods. We analysed the periodicities present in the combined RV data sets from all three instruments and calculated the detection limits for potential planets in short-period orbits. Results. We cannot confirm the recently announced candidate planet and conclude that the 2-day signal in the HARPS-N and HPF data sets is most probably produced by a long-term RV variability, possibly arising from an outer planetary companion that has yet to be constrained. We calculate a 99.9% significance detection limit of 1.50 m s^(−1) in the RV semi-amplitude, which places upper limits of 0.7 Mꙩ and 1.2 Mꙩ on the minimum masses of potential exoplanets with orbital periods of 1 and 5 days, respectively.
© ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 23 autores. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to all members of the Calar Alto staff for their expert support of the instrument and telescope operation. CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. This work was based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (CSICINTA). We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, AYA2018-84089, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme.
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