Forcing the shift of the crossover site to proximal regions in wheat chromosomes

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Crossovers are not uniformly distributed along chromosomes in wheat. They take place preferentially in distal positions. The effect of the chromosomal architecture on crossover positioning has been analyzed from the chiasmate bonds at metaphase I formed by the truncated arms of 51 terminal deletion lines of eight wheat chromosomes. Chromosome 4A and the B genome chromosomes, in their standard or truncated conformation, and their arms, were identified by C-banding. Chromosomes studied show a similar chiasma distribution. Reduction of the size of the truncated arms is accompanied by a gradual decrease of the chiasma frequency in chromosome arms 1BL, 3BS, 3BL, 4BL, 5BS, 5BL, 6BL, 7BS, 7BL and 4AL. In chromosome arm 1BS, most chiasmata are concentrated in the distal half of the satellite and, in 4AS, in the distal 24 %. The arms 2BS, 2BL and 6BS do not show a simple decreasing gradient of the recombination rate, the chiasma frequency increases in subdistal intervals compared to more distal regions. Although terminal deletions usually induce an increase of chiasma frequency in intercalary regions, the level of intact chromosome arms is maintained in only a few deletion lines. Truncated arms containing only the 20 % proximal of the intact arm do not form chiasmata. The relationships of chiasma positioning with chromatin structure and genome organization is discussed.