Uptake of CeO2 nanoparticles and its effect on growth of Medicago arborea in vitro plantlets

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The present study analyzes some effects of nanoCeO2 particles on the growth of in vitro plantlets of Medicago arborea when the nanoceria was added to the culture medium. Various concentrations of nano-CeO2 and bulk ceric oxide particles in suspension form were introduced to the agar culture medium to compare the effects of nanoceria versus ceric oxide bulk material. Germination rate and shoot dry weight were not affected by the addition of ceric oxide to the culture media. Furthermore, no effects were observed on chlorophyll content (single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) measurements) due to the presence of either nano- or microCeO2 in the culture medium. When low concentrations of nanoceria were added to the medium, the number of trifoliate leaves and the root length increased but the root dry weight decreased. Also the values of maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) showed a significant decrease. Darkadapted minimum fluorescence (F0) significantly increased in the presence of 200 mg L−1 nanoceria and 400 mg L−1 bulk material. Root tissues were more sensitive to nanoceria than were the shoots at lower concentrations of nanoceria. A stress effect was observed on M. arborea plantlets due to cerium uptake.