Towards a Taxonomy of Firms Engaged in International R&D Cooperation Programs: The Case of Spain in Eureka

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Fischer, Bruno B.
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Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI)
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Innovation is a process that faces several “market failure” situations and for this reason – and for being considered one of the main drivers of economic growth throughout the world – a large number of governmental and supranational policies are designed to foster technological progress. In Europe this situation could not be any different and the “European Paradox” is used as the main argument for the implementation of innovation related initiatives. Along with these policies, there is an increasing concern with their continuous evaluation aiming at providing valuable feedback for these program’s adaptation and adequacy to the player’s needs. In this sense, this paper develops an evaluation of Eureka Programme’s impact for the case of Spanish companies participating in this initiative and that had projects finished in the period 2000-2005 (analysis performed through the information contained in Eureka’s Final Reports). A total of 77 firms were assessed through quantitative methods, namely correlations, chi-square tests, discriminant models and cluster analysis. Findings show that Spain participates in Eureka mainly through SMEs, and that the overall rate of technological achievements is impressively good. Commercial achievements seem to be influenced mainly by the quality of the project’s functioning and the capacity of firm’s exploiting results in the industry by the end of the project. A basic typology of participants is offered in which three clusters are built: (1) Risky Innovators; (2) Inventors; and (3) Consistent Innovators.
El proceso innovador enfrenta una serie de fallos de mercado y por esta razón – y por ser considerado uno de los principales agentes del crecimiento económico en el mundo – un significativo número de políticas gubernamentales y supra-nacionales son diseñadas para promover el progreso tecnológico. En Europa la situación no podría ser diferente y la “Paradoja Europea” es utilizada como principal argumento para la implementación de iniciativas relacionadas a la innovación. Junto con estas políticas hay una creciente preocupación con su continua evaluación, teniendo como objetivo proveer feedbacks para la adaptación y adecuación de estos programas con las necesidades de los agentes involucrados. En este sentido, el presente paper desarrolla una evaluación de los impactos del Programa Eureka para el caso de las empresas españolas participantes en esta iniciativa y con proyectos concluidos entre los años 2000-2005 (a través de análisis de los informes finales de los proyectos). Un total de 77 empresas fueron abordadas con métodos cuantitativos (correlaciones, testes chi-cuadrado, análisis discriminante y análisis de cluster). Los resultados demuestran que la participación española en Eureka suele tener altos niveles de logros tecnológicos. Los logros comerciales parecen estar definidos por la calidad del funcionamiento del proyecto y por la capacidad de las empresas en explotar sus resultados en el mercado ya antes del fin del proyecto. Una tipología introductoria de los participantes es propuesta en 3 conglomerados: (1) Risky Innovators; (2) Inventors; y (3) Consistent Innovators.
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