The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: The HeI infrared triplet lines in PHOENIX models of M 2-3 V stars

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The He I infrared (IR) line at a vacuum wavelength of 10 833 Å is a diagnostic for the investigation of atmospheres of stars and planets orbiting them. For the first time, we study the behavior of the He I IR line in a set of chromospheric models for M-dwarf stars, whose much denser chromospheres may favor collisions for the level population over photoionization and recombination, which are believed to be dominant in solar-type stars. For this purpose, we use published PHOENIX models for stars of spectral types M2 V and M3 V and also compute new series of models with different levels of activity following an ansatz developed for the case of the Sun. We perform a detailed analysis of the behavior of the He I IR line within these models. We evaluate the line in relation to other chromospheric lines and also the influence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation field. The analysis of the He I IR line strengths as a function of the respective EUV radiation field strengths suggests that the mechanism of photoionization and recombination is necessary to form the line for inactive models, while collisions start to play a role in our most active models. Moreover, the published model set, which is optimized in the ranges of the Na I D_(2), Hα, and the bluest Ca II IR triplet line, gives an adequate prediction of the He I IR line for most stars of the stellar sample. Because especially the most inactive stars with weak He I IR lines are fit worst by our models, it seems that our assumption of a 100% filling factor of a single inactive component no longer holds for these stars.
© ESO 2020. Artículo firmado por 28 autores. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Science [through projects AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, and AYA2018-84089], the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. D.H. acknowledges funding by the DLR under DLR 50 OR1701. B.F. acknowledges funding by the DFG under Cz 222/1-1 and Schm 1032/69- 1. S.C. acknowledges support through DFG projects SCH 1382/2-1 and SCHM 1032/66-1. We thank the anonymous referee for the comprehensive review.
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