Development and evaluation of copper-containing mesoporous bioactive glasses for bone defects therapy.

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Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are gaining increasing interest in the design of new biomaterials for bone defects treatment. An important research trend to enhance their biological behavior is the inclusion of moderate amounts of oxides with therapeutical action such as CuO. MBGs with composition (85-x)SiO2–10- CaO–5P2O5–xCuO (x = 0, 2.5 or 5 mol-%) were synthesized, investigating the influence of the CuO content and some synthesis parameters in their properties. Two series were developed; first one used HCl as catalyst and chlorides as CaO and CuO precursors, second one, used HNO3 and nitrates. MBGs of chlorides family exhibited calcium/copper phosphate nanoparticles between 10 and 20 nm in size. Nevertheless, CuO-containing MBGs of nitrates family showed metallic copper nanoparticles larger than 50 nm as well as quicker in vitro bioactive responses. Thus, MBGs of the nitrate series were coated by an apatite-like layer after 24 h soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) a remarkably short period for a MBG containing 5% of CuO. A model, focused in the location of copper in the glass network, was proposed to relate nanostructure and in vitro behaviour. Moreover, after 24 h soaked in MEM or THB culture media, all the MBGs released therapeutic amounts of Ca2+ and Cu2+ ions. Because the quick bioactive response in SBF, the capacity to host biomolecules in their pores and to release therapeutic concentrations of Ca2+ and Cu2+ ions, MBGs of the nitrate families are proposed as excellent biomaterials for bone regeneration.
RESEARCHER ID N-4501-2014 (Sandra Sánchez Salcedo) ORCID 0000-0002-1889-2057 (Sandra Sánchez Salcedo) RESEARCHER ID M-3378-2014 (María Vallet Regí) ORCID 0000-0002-6104-4889 (María Vallet Regí) RESEARCHER ID M-3316-2014 (Antonio Salinas Sánchez) ORCID 0000-0002-8408-3389 (Antonio Salinas Sánchez)