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Major histocompatibility complex complement (MHC) Bf alleles show trans species evolution between man and chimpanzee

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<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>HLA and disease studies by using single allele statistics have been fruitless during the last 40 years for explaining association pathogenesis of the associated diseases.Other approaches are necessary to untangle this puzzle. We aim to revisit complement alleleism in humans and primates for both studying MHC and disease association to complotypes and extended MHC haplotypes in order to also explain the positive directional selection of maintaining immune response genes (complement, MHC adaptive and MHC non-specific genes) that keeps these three type of genes together in a short chromosome stretch (MHC) for million years. These genes may be linked to conjointly avoid microbes attack and autoimmunity. In the present paper, it is obtained a new Bf chimpanzee allele, provisionaly named Patr-Bf*A:01,that differs from other Bf alleles by having CTG at eleventh codon of exon 2 in order to start the newly suggested methodology and explain functional and evolutionary MHC obscure aspects. Exons 1 to 6 of Ba fragment of Bf gene were obtained from chimpanzee. This new chimpanzee Factor B allele (Patr-Bf*A:01) is to be identical to a infrequent human Bf allele (SNP rs641153); it stresses the strong evolutive pressure upon certain alleles that are trans specific. It also may apply to MHC extended haplotipes which may conjointly act to start an adequate immune response. It is the first time that a complement MHC class III allele is described to undergo trans species evolution,in contrast to class I and class II alleles which had already been reported . Allelism of complement factors are again proposed for studying MHC complement genes, complotypes, and extended MHC haplotypes which may be more informative that single MHC marker studies.</jats:p>
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