Publication: Production and Characterization of a new Copper(II) Propanoate-Isonicotinamide Adduct obtained via Slow Evaporation and using Supercritical CO2 as an Antisolvent
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A new adduct of isonicotinamide (INA) with copper(II) propanoate [Cu(C3)2] was prepared [Cu2(C3)4(INA)4] using two different methods. This type of compound shows high fungicidal activity. Solvent evaporation from ethanol rendered crystals suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, a new semicontinuous method capable of simultaneous crystallization and micronization of the adduct using supercritical CO2, the supercritical antisolvent technique (SAS), was also assessed. Crystals were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and microelemental analysis. In the adduct, two copper(II) ions are coordinated through two bridging and two chelating carboxylates to the propanoate anions forming approximately a plane. Each metal ion is then coordinated with the pyridine nitrogen of two different INA molecules that behave as monodentate ligands. The amide groups of the INA form H-bonds with other amide and carboxylate groups forming a molecular crystal with a three-dimensional H-bond arrangement of the binuclear units. With the SAS technique, crystals 100-fold smaller than those obtained by slow evaporation were obtained, proving SAS as a suitable method for mixed-ligand complexes preparation with reduced particle size and therefore expected bioavailability enhancement.