Assessing and understanding the impact of stratospheric dynamics and variability on the earth system

dc.contributor.authorGerber, Edwin P.
dc.contributor.authorButler, Amy
dc.contributor.authorCalvo Fernández, Natalia
dc.contributor.authorCharlton-Perez, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorGiorgetta, Marco
dc.contributor.authorManzini, Elisa
dc.contributor.authorPerlwitz, Judith
dc.contributor.authorPolvani, Lorenzo M.
dc.contributor.authorSassi, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorScaife, Adam A.
dc.contributor.authorShaw, Tiffany A.
dc.contributor.authorSon, Seok-Woo
dc.contributor.authorWatanabe, Shingo
dc.description© 2012 American Meteorological Society. We thank Dr. Ben Ruston of the Marine Meteorology Division of the Naval Research Laboratory for permission to use the data in Fig. 2, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. EPG gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation through the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences program. FS acknowledges the support of the Office of Naval Research through NRL's base 6.1 and 6.2 research programs. JP's contribution is supported by NOAA's Climate Program Office, and MG and EM acknowledge the partial support of the COMBINE project of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme.
dc.description.abstractNew modeling efforts will provide unprecedented opportunities to harness our knowledge of the stratosphere to improve weather and climate prediction.
dc.description.departmentDepto. de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
dc.description.facultyFac. de Ciencias Físicas
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation through the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences program
dc.description.sponsorshipOffice of Naval Research through NRL's base 6.1 and 6.2 research programs
dc.description.sponsorshipNOAA's Climate Program Office
dc.description.sponsorshipCOMBINE project of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme
dc.identifier.citationAlexander, M. J., and Coauthors, 2010: Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 1103–1124. Angell, J., 1997: Stratospheric warming due to Agung, El Chichón, and Pinatubo taking into account the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D8), 9479–9485. Arblaster, J. M., and G. A. Meehl, 2006: Contributions of external forcings to southern annular mode trends. J. Climate, 19, 2046–2062. Assmann, R. A., 1902: Über die Existenz eines wärmeren Lufttromes in der Höhe von 10 bis 15 km. Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., 24, 495–504. Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 2001: Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science, 294, 581–584. —, D. B. Stephenson, D. W. J. Thompson, T. J. Dunkerton, A. J. Charlton, and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301, 636–640. Bell, C. J., L. J. Gray, A. J. Charlton-Perez, M. M. Joshi, and A. A. Scaife, 2009: Stratospheric communication of El Niño teleconnections to European winter. J. Climate, 22, 4083–4096. Black, R. X., B. A. McDaniel, and W. A. Robinson, 2006: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling during spring onset. J. Climate, 19, 4892–4901. Boer, G. J., and K. Hamilton, 2008: QBO influence on extratropical predictive skill. Climate Dyn., 31, 987–1000. Böning, C. W., A. Dispert, M. Visbeck, S. R. Rintoul, and F. U. Schwarzkopf, 2008: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nat. Geosci., 1, 864–869, doi:10.1038/ngeo362. Bönisch, H., A. Engel, T. Birner, P. Hoor, D. W. Tarasick, and E. A. Ray, 2011: On the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3937–3948. Boville, B. A., 1984: The influence of the polar night jet on the tropospheric circulation in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1132–1142. —, and D. P. Baumhefner, 1990: Simulated forecast error and climate drift resulting from the omission of the upper stratosphere in numerical models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1517–1530. Brewer, A. W., 1949: Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 75, 351–363. Brönnimann, S., J. Luterbacker, J. Staehelin, T. M. Svendby, G. Hansen, and T. Svenøe, 2004: Extreme climate of the global troposphere and stratosphere in 1940–42 related to El Niño. Nature, 431, 971–974. Butchart, N., and A. A. Scaife, 2001: Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799–802. —, and Coauthors, 2010: Chemistry–climate model simulations of twenty-first century stratospheric climate and circulation changes. J. Climate, 23, 5349–5374. Cagnazzo, C., and E. Manzini, 2009: Impact of the stratosphere on the winter tropospheric teleconnections between ENSO and the North Atlantic and European region. J. Climate, 22, 1223–1238. Calvo, N., and R. R. Garcia, 2009: Wave forcing of the tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere under increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3184–3196. —, M. A. Giorgetta, R. Garcia Herrera, and E. Manzini, 2009: Nonlinearity of the combined warm ENSO and QBO effects on the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex in MAECHAM5 simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D13109, doi:10.1029/2008JD011445. Camp, C. D., and K.-K. Tung, 2007: The influence of the solar cycle and QBO on the late-winter stratospheric polar vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1267–1283. Charlton, A. J., A. O’Neil, W. A. Lahoz, and A. C. Massacand, 2004: Sensitivity of tropospheric forecasts to stratospheric initial conditions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 1771–1792. Charney, J. G., and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 66, 83–109. Chen, G., and I. M. Held, 2007: Phase speed spectra and the recent poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere surface westerlies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21805, doi:10.1029/2007GL031200. Christiansen, B., 2005: Downward propagation and statistical forecast of the near-surface weather. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005431. Cohen, J., M. Barlow, P. J. Kushner, and K. Saito, 2007: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian land surface variability. J. Climate, 20, 5335–5343. Coughlin, K., and K.-K. Tung, 2001: QBO signal found at the extratropical surface through northern annular modes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4563–4566. Crooks, S. A., and L. J. Gray, 2005: Characterization of the 11-year solar signal using a multiple regression analysis of the ERA-40 dataset. J. Climate, 18, 996–1015. Dall’Amico, M., P. A. Stott, A. A. Scaife, L. J. Gray, K. H. Rosenlof, and A. Yu. Karpechko, 2010: Impact of stratospheric variability on tropospheric climate change. Climate Dyn., 34, 399–417. Dobson, G. M. B., 1956: Origin and distribution of polyatomic molecules in the atmosphere. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 236A, 187–193. Emanuel, K. A., 2010: Stratospheric cooling and tropical cyclones. Preprints, 29th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4A.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex .com/ams/29Hurricanes/techprogram/paper_168302.htm.] Engel, A., and Coauthors, 2009: Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years. Nat. Geosci., 2, 28–31. Eyring, V., T. G. Shepherd, and D. W. Waugh, Eds., 2010: Chemistry-climate model validation. SPARC Rep. 5, WCRP-30, WMO/TD-40, 194 pp. [Available at] Farman, J. C., B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin, 1985: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal CLOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315, 207–210. Fels, S. B., J. D. Mahlman, M. D. Schwarzkopf, and R. W. Sinclair, 1980: Stratospheric sensitivity to perturbations in ozone and carbon dioxide: Radiative and dynamical response. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2265–2297. Fletcher, C. G., and P. J. Kushner, 2011: The role of linear interference in the annular mode response to tropical SST forcing. J. Climate, 24, 778–794. Fogt, R. L., J. Perlwitz, A. J. Monaghan, D. H. Bromwich, J. M. Jones, and G. J. Marshall, 2009: Historical SAM variability. Part II: Twentiethcentury variability and trends from reconstructions, observations, and the IPCC AR4 models. J. Climate, 22, 5346–5365. Fueglistaler, S., A. E. Dessler, T. J. Dunkerton, I. Folkins, Q. Fu, and P. W. Mote, 2009: Tropical tropopause layer. Rev. Geophys., 47, RG1004, doi:10.1029/2008RG000267. Garcia, R. R., W. J. Randel, and D. E. Kinnison, 2011: On the determination of age of air trends from atmospheric trace species. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 139–154. García Herrera, R., N. Calvo, R. R. García, and M. A. Giorgetta, 2006: Propagation of ENSO temperature signals into the middle atmosphere: A comparison of two general circulation models and ERA-40 reanalysis data. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006061. Gerber, E . P. , and L . M. Polvani , 2009: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in a relatively simple AGCM: The importance of stratospheric variability. J. Climate, 22, 1920–1933. —, S. Voronin, and L. M. Polvani, 2008: Testing the annular mode autocorrelation time scale in simple atmospheric general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1523–1536. —, C. Orbe, and L. M. Polvani, 2009: Stratospheric influence on the tropospheric circulation revealed by idealized ensemble forecasts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24801, doi:10.1029/2009GL040913. Gettelman, A., and Coauthors, 2010: Multimodel assessment of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Tropics and global trends. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M08, doi:10.1029/2009JD013638. Gray, L . J., and Coauthors, 2010: Solar inf luences on climate. Rev. Geophys., 48, RG4001, doi:10.1029/2009RG000282. Haigh, J. D., 1996: The impact of solar variability on climate. Science, 272, 981–984. —, A. R. Winning, R. Toumi, and J. W. Harder, 2010: An influence of solar spectral variations on radiative forcing of climate. Nature, 467, 696–699. Hartley, D. E., J. T. Villarin, R. X. Black, and C. A. Davis, 1998: A new perspective on the dynamical link between the stratosphere and troposphere. Nature, 391, 471–474. Hoinka, K. P., 1997: The tropopause: Discovery, definition, and demarcation. Meteor. Z., 6, 281–303. Holland, D. M., R. H. Thomas, B. deYoung, and M. H. Ribergaard, 2008: Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbræ triggered by warm subsurface ocean waters. Nat. Geosci., 1, 659–664. Holton, J. R., and C. Mass, 1976: Stratospheric vacillation cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2218–2225. —, and H.-C. Tan, 1980: The influence of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation on the global circulation at 50 mb. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2200–2208. Ineson, S., and A. A. Scaife, 2009: The role of the stratosphere in the European climate response to El Niño. Nat. Geosci., 2, 32–36. Jung, T., and J. Barkmeijer, 2006: Sensitivity of the tropospheric circulation to changes in the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2191–2207. Kang, S. M., L. M. Polvani, J. C. Fyfe, and M. Sigmond, 2011: Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation. Science, 332, 951–954, doi:10.1126/ science.1202131. Kidston, J., and E. P. Gerber, 2010: Intermodel variability of the poleward shift of the austral jet stream in the CMIP3 integrations linked to biases in 20th century climatology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09708, doi:10.1029/2010GL042873. Kodera, K., and Y. Kuroda, 2002: Dynamical response to the solar cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4749, doi:10.1029/2002JD002224. Kolstad, E. W., T. Breiteig, and A. A. Scaife, 2010: The association between stratospheric weak polar vortex events and cold air outbreaks in the Northern Hemisphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 886–893. Kunz, T., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2009: Synoptic scale wave breaking and its potential to drive NAO-like circulation dipoles: A simplified GCM approach. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 1–19. Kuroda, Y., 2008: Role of the stratosphere on the predictability of medium-range weather forecast: A case study of winter 2003–2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19701, doi:10.1029/2008GL034902.00048469301 Kushner, P. J., and L. M. Polvani, 2004: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in a relatively simple AGCM: The role of eddies. J. Climate, 17, 629–639. —, I. M. Held, and T. L. Delworth, 2001: Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, 14, 2238–2249. Labitzke, K. G., 1972: Temperature changes in the mesosphere and stratosphere connected with circulation changes in winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 756–766. —, and H. Van Loon, 1999: The Stratosphere: Phenomena, History, and Relevance. Springer-Verlag, 179 pp. Lean, J. L., and D. H. Rind, 2008: How natural and anthropogenic influences alter global and regional surface temperatures: 1889 to 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18701, doi:10.1029/2008GL034864. Lenton, A., F. Codron, L. Bopp, N. Metzl, P. Cadule, A. Tagliabue, and J. Le Sommer, 2009: Stratospheric ozone depletion reduces ocean carbon uptake and enhances ocean acidification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12606, doi:10.1029/2009GL038227. Limpasuvan, V., and D. L. Hartmann, 2000: Wave-maintained annular modes of climate variability. J. Climate, 13, 4414 4429. —, —, D. W. J. Thompson, K. Jeev, and Y. L. Yung, 2005: Stratosphere-troposphere evolution during polar vortex intensification. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006302. Lovenduski, N. S., N. Gruber, and S. C. Doney, 2008: Toward a mechanistic understanding of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon sink. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB3016, doi:10.1029/2007gb003139. Manzini, E., and Coauthors, 2011: Report on the SPARC DynVar Workshop 2 on modelling the dynamics and variability of the stratosphere-troposphere system. SPARC Newsletter, No. 36, SPARC International Project Office, Zurich, Switzerland, 19–22. Marsh, D. R., and R. R. Garcia, 2007: Attribution of decadal variability in lower-stratospheric tropical ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21807, doi:10.1029/2007GL030935. Marshall, A. G., and A. A. Scaife, 2009: Impact of the QBO on surface winter climate. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D18110, doi:10.1029/2009JD011737. —, —, and S. Ineson, 2009: Enhanced seasonal prediction of European winter warming following volcanic eruptions. J. Climate, 22, 6168–6180. Matsuno, T., 1971: A dynamical model of the stratospheric sudden warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1479–1494. Matthes, K., Y. Kuroda, K. Kodera, and U. Langematz, 2006: Transfer of the solar signal from the stratosphere to the troposphere: Northern winter. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006283. McLandress, C., T. G. Shepherd, J. F. Scinocca, D. A. Plummer, M. Sigmond, A. I. Jonsson, and M. C. Reader, 2011: Separating the dynamical effects of climate change and ozone depletion. Part II: Southern Hemisphere troposphere. J. Climate, 24, 1850–1868. McTaggart-Cowan, R., C. Girard, A. Plante, and M. Desgagné, 2011: The utility of upper-boundary nesting in NWP. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2117–2144. Mukougawa, H., T. Hirooka, and Y. Kuroda, 2009: Influence of stratospheric circulation on the predictability of the tropospheric northern annular mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08814, doi:10.1029/2008GL037127. National Research Council, 2010: Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability. National Academies Press, 192 pp. Newman, P. A., and J. E. Rosenfield, 1997: Stratospheric thermal damping times. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 433–436. Niemeier, U., H. Schmidt, and C. Timmreck, 2011: The dependency of geoengineered sulfate aerosol on the emission strategy. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 12, 189–194. Pawson, S., and Coauthors, 2000: The GCM–Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 781–796. Perlwitz, J., and N. Harnik, 2003: Observational evidence of a stratospheric influence on the troposphere by planetary wave reflection. J. Climate, 16, 3011–3026. —, S. Pawson, R. Fogt, J. E. Nielsen, and W. D. Neff, 2008: Impact of stratospheric ozone hole recovery on Antarctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08714, doi:10.1029/2008GL033317. Polvani, L. M., and D. W. Waugh, 2004: Upward wave activity flux as a precursor to extreme stratospheric events and subsequent anomalous surface weather regimes. J. Climate, 17, 3548–3554. —, —, G. J. P. Correa, and S.-W. Son, 2011: Stratospheric ozone depletion: The main driver of twentieth-century atmospheric circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 24, 795–812. Ring, M. J., and R. A. Plumb, 2008: The response of a simplified GCM to axisymmetric forcings: Applicability of the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3880–3898. Rivière, G., 2011: A dynamical interpretation of the poleward shift of the jet streams in global warming scenarios. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1253–1272. Robock, A., and J. Mao, 1992: Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 2405–2408. —, and —, 1995: The volcanic signal in surface temperature observations. J. Climate, 8, 1086–1103. Roff, G., D. W. J. Thompson, and H. Hendon, 2011: Does increasing model stratospheric resolution improve extended-range forecast skill? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05809, doi:10.1029/2010GL046515. Scaife, A. A., J. R. Knight, G. K. Vallis, and C. K. Folland, 2005: A stratospheric influence on the winter NAO and North Atlantic surface climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18715, doi:10.1029/2005GL023226. —, and Coauthors, 2011: Climate change projections and stratosphere–troposphere interaction. Climate Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1080-7. Scherhag, R., 1952: Die Explosionsartige Stratosphärenerwärmung des Spätwinters 1951/52. Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes U.S. Zone, 6, 51–63. Schimanke, S., J. Körper, T. Spangehl, and U. Cubasch, 2011: Multi-decadal variability of sudden stratospheric warmings in an AOGCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L01801, doi:10.1029/2010GL045756. Shaw, T. A., J. Perlwitz, N. Harnik, P. A. Newman, and S. Pawson, 2011: The impact of stratospheric ozone changes on downward wave coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 24, 4210–4229. Shepherd, J., and Coauthors, 2009: Geoengineering the climate: Science, governance and uncertainty. Royal Society Policy Document 10/09, 83 pp. Shepherd, T. G., 2008: Dynamics, stratospheric ozone, and climate change. Atmos.–Ocean, 46, 371–392. —, and C. McLandress, 2011: A robust mechanism for strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation in response to climate change: Critical-layer control of subtropical wave breaking. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 784–797. Sigmond, M., and J. C. Fyfe, 2010: Has the ozone hole contributed to increased Antarctic sea ice extent? Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18502, doi:10.1029/2010GL044301. —, J. F. Scinocca, and P. J. Kushner, 2008: Impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12706, doi:10.1029/2008GL033573. Simpson, I. R., M. Blackburn, and J. D. Haigh, 2009: The role of eddies in driving the tropospheric response to stratospheric heating perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1347–1365. Solomon, S., 1999: Stratospheric ozone depletion: A review of concepts and history. Rev. Geophys., 37, 275–316. —, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G.-K. Plattner, 2010: Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming. Science, 327, 1219–1223. Son, S.-W., and Coauthors, 2008: The impact of stratospheric ozone recovery on the Southern Hemisphere westerly jet. Science, 320, 1486–1489. —, and Coauthors, 2010: Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: A multimodel assessment. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M07, doi:10.1029/2010JD014271. Song, Y., and W. A. Robinson, 2004: Dynamical mechanisms for stratospheric influences on the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1711–1725. Teisserenc de Bort, L., 1902: Variations de la temperature de l’air libre dans la zone comprise entre 8 km et 13 km d’altitude. C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 138, 42–45. Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300. —, and —, 2001: Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science, 293, 85–89. —, and S. Solomon, 2002: Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science, 296, 895–899. —, M. P. Baldwin, and J. M. Wallace, 2002: Stratospheric connection to Northern Hemisphere wintertime weather: Implications for prediction. J. Climate, 15, 1421–1428. —, J. C. Furtado, and T. G. Shepherd, 2006: On the tropospheric response to anomalous stratospheric wave drag and radiative heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2616–2629. Tilmes, S., R. Müller, and R. Salawitch, 2008: The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes. Science, 320, 1201–1204, doi:10.1126/science.1153966. Turner, J., and Coauthors, 2009: Nonannular atmospheric circulation change induced by stratospheric ozone depletion and its role in the recent increase of Antarctic sea ice extent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037524. Waugh, D. W., L. Oman, S. R. Kawa, R. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, A. R. Douglass, P. A. Newman, and J. E. Nielsen, 2009a: Impacts of climate change on stratospheric ozone recovery. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03805, doi:10.1029/2008GL036223. —, —, P. A. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, J. E. Nielsen, and J. Perlwitz, 2009b: Effect of zonal asymmetries in stratospheric ozone on simulated Southern Hemisphere climate trends. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18701, doi:10.1029/2009GL040419. Wittman, M. A. H., L. M. Polvani, R. K. Scott, and A. J. Charlton, 2004: Stratospheric influence on baroclinic lifecycles and its connection to the Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16113, doi:10.1029/2004GL020503. Yin, J. H., 2005: A consistent poleward shift of the storm tracks in simulations of 21st century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18701, doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.
dc.journal.titleBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Society
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access
dc.subject.keywordQuasi-biennial oscillation
dc.subject.keywordRelatively simple AGCM
dc.subject.keywordPolar ozone depletion
dc.subject.keywordTropospheric circulation
dc.subject.keywordArctic oscillation
dc.subject.keywordSurface weather
dc.subject.keywordSimplified GCM
dc.subject.keywordAnnular modes
dc.subject.ucmAstronomía (Física)
dc.subject.ucmFísica atmosférica
dc.subject.unesco2501 Ciencias de la Atmósfera
dc.titleAssessing and understanding the impact of stratospheric dynamics and variability on the earth system
dc.typejournal article
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
844 KB
Adobe Portable Document Format