Evolution of the anti-truncated stellar profiles of SO galaxies since z=0.6 in the SHARDS survey II. Structural and photometric evolution

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Borlaff, Alejandro
Eliche Moral, Carmen
Beckman, John E.
Vazdekis, Alexandre
Lumbreras Calle, Alejandro
Ciambur, Bogdan C.
Cardiel, Nicolás
Barro, Guillermo
Cava, Antonio
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Context. Anti-truncated lenticular galaxies (Type-III S0s) present tight scaling relations between their surface brightness photometric and structural parameters. Although several evolutionary models have been proposed for the formation of these structures, the observations of Type-III S0 galaxies are usually limited to the local Universe. Aims. We aim to compare the properties of Type-III discs in a sample of S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6with those of the local Universe. In this paper, we study the evolution of the photometric and structural scaling relations measured in the rest-frame R-band with z and the possible differences between the rest-frame (B - R) colours of the inner and outer disc profiles. Methods. We make use of a sample of 14 Type-III E/ S0-S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0 : 6 from the GOODS-N field identified and characterised in a previous paper. We study whether or not the correlations found in local Type-III S0 galaxies were present similar to 6 Gyr ago. We analyse the distribution of the surface brightness characteristic parameters (R-break, mu(break), h(i), h(o), mu(0;) i and mu(0; o)) as a function of the stellar mass and look to see if there is a significant change with z. We also derive their rest-frame (B - R) colour profiles. Finally, we compare these results with the predictions from a grid of SSP models. Results. We find that the inner and outer scale-lengths of Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.4 < z < 0.6follow compatible trends and scaling relations with those observed in local S0 galaxies as a function of the break radius, R-break. We do not detect any significant differences between the location of R-break between z similar to 0.6 and z similar to 0 for a fixed stellar mass of the object, whereas the surface brightness at the break radius mu(break) is similar to 1.5 mag arcsec 2 dimmer in the local Universe than at z similar to 0.6 for a fixed stellar mass. We find no significant differences in the (B - R) colour between the inner and outer profiles of the Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6. Conclusions. In contrast to Type-II (down-bending) profiles, the anti-truncated surface brightness profiles of S0 galaxies present compatible R-break values and scaling relations during the last 6 Gyr. This result and the similarity of the colours of the inner and outer discs point to a highly scalable and stable formation process, probably more related to gravitational and dynamical processes than to the evolution of stellar populations.
© ESO 2018. We thank the anonymous referee for their detailed comments and suggestions to the original version of this manuscript, which helped to improve it considerably. Supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad del Gobierno de España (MINECO) under project AYA2012-31277 and project P3/86 of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. PGP-G acknowledges support from MINECO grants AYA2015-70815-ERC and AYA2015-63650-P. NCL acknowledges support from MINECO grants AYA2013-46724-P and AYA2016-75808-R. This work has made use of the Rainbow Cosmological Surveys Database, which is operated by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) partnered with the University of California Observatories at Santa Cruz (UCO/Lick, UCSC). We are deeply grateful to the SHARDS team, since this work would not have been possible without their efforts. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. This paper made use of R: A language and environment for statistical computing (R Core Team 2017, and Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). We thank all the GTC Staff for their support and enthusiasm with the SHARDS project. This work is based on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program (GO 12177 and 12328) with the NASA/ESA HST, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
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