The combined use of raw and phylogenetically independent methods of outlier detection uncovers genome‐wide dynamics of local adaptation in a lizard

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Local adaptation is a dynamic process by which different allele combinations are se-lected in different populations at different times, and whose genetic signature can be inferred by genome-wide outlier analyses. We combined gene flow estimates with two methods of outlier detection, one of them independent of population coances-try (CIOA) and the other one not (ROA), to identify genetic variants favored when ecology promotes phenotypic convergence. We analyzed genotyping-by-sequencing data from five populations of a lizard distributed over an environmentally heteroge-neous range that has been changing since the split of eastern and western lineages ca. 3 mya. Overall, western lizards inhabit forest habitat and are unstriped, whereas eastern ones inhabit shrublands and are striped. However, one population (Lerma) has unstriped phenotype despite its eastern ancestry. The analysis of 73,291 SNPs confirmed the east–west division and identified nonoverlapping sets of outliers (12 identified by ROA and 9 by CIOA). ROA revealed ancestral adaptive variation in the uncovered outliers that were subject to divergent selection and differently fixed for eastern and western populations at the extremes of the environmental gradient. Interestingly, such variation was maintained in Lerma, where we found high levels of heterozygosity for ROA outliers, whereas CIOA uncovered innovative variants that were selected only there. Overall, it seems that both the maintenance of ancestral variation and asymmetric migration have counterbalanced adaptive lineage split-ting in our model species. This scenario, which is likely promoted by a changing and heterogeneous environment, could hamper ecological speciation of locally adapted populations despite strong genetic structure between lineages.