Fluctuation theorem between non-equilibrium states in an RC circuit.

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Fluctuation theorems impose constraints on the probability of observing negative entropy production in small systems driven out of equilibrium. The range of validity of fluctuation theorems has been extensively tested for transitions between equilibrium and non-equilibrium stationary states, but not between general non-equilibrium states. Here we report an experimental verification of the detailed fluctuation theorem for the total amount of entropy produced in the isothermal transition between two non-equilibrium states. The experimental setup is a parallel RC circuit driven by an alternating current. We investigate the statistics of the heat released, of the variation of the entropy of the system, and of the entropy produced for processes of different durations. We show that the fluctuation theorem is satisfied with high accuracy for current drivings at different frequencies and different amplitudes.
©2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. LG acknowledges the Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik komplexer Systeme for its hospitality. LG and ER acknowledge financial support from Grant ENFASIS (FIS2011-22644) and TerMic (FIS2014-52486-R) from the Spanish Government. SC also acknowledges financial support from ERC project OUTEFLUCOP.
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