Formation and evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster II. Kinematic scaling relations

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Toloba, E.
Boselli, A.
Peletier, R. F.
Falcón Barroso, J.
van de Ven, G.
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We place our sample of 18 Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) on the (V - K)_e-velocity dispersion, Faber-Jackson, and fundamental plane (FP) scaling relations for massive early-type galaxies (Es). We use a generalized velocity dispersion, which includes rotation, to be able to compare the location of both rotationally and pressure supported dEs with those of early and late-type galaxies. We find that dEs seem to bend the Faber-Jackson relation of Es to lower velocity dispersions, being the link between Es and dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Regarding the FP relation, we find that dEs are significantly offset with respect to massive hot stellar systems, and re-casting the FP into the so-called.-space suggests that this offset is related to dEs having a total mass-to-light ratio higher than Es but still significantly lower than dSph galaxies. Given a stellar mass-to-light ratio based on the measured line indices of dEs, the FP offset allows us to infer that the dark matter fraction within the half light radii of dEs is on average ≳42% (uncertainties of 17% in the K band and 20% in the V band), fully consistent with an independent estimate in an earlier paper in this series. We also find that dEs in the size-luminosity relation in the near-infrared, like in the optical, are offset from early-type galaxies, but seem to be consistent with late-type galaxies. We thus conclude that the scaling relations show that dEs are different from Es, and that they further strengthen our previous findings that dEs are closer to and likely formed from late-type galaxies.
© ESO, 2012. We thank the anonymous referee for his/her comments that have helped us to significantly improve this manuscript. E. T. thanks Juan Carlos Muñoz Mateos, Armando Gil de Paz, Mina Koleva, Sven de Rijcke, Puragra GuhaThakurta and Joshua Simon for very useful discussions. We thank the MAGPOP EU Marie Curie Training Network for financial support for the collaborating research visits and observations that allowed to make this paper. The observing time used in this work was part of the International Time Program (ITP 2005-2007, ITP4) at El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). E. T. thanks the financial support of the Fulbright Program jointly with the Spanish Ministry of Education. E. T. and J.G. have received financial support through the Spanish research projects AYA2007-67752-C03-03 and AYA2010-21322-C03-03. J.F.B. acknowledges support from the Ramón y Cajal Program as well as grant AYA2010-21322-C03-02 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. This paper made use of the following public databases: SDSS (York et al. 2000), NASA/IPAC Extagalactic Database (NED, operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey, Skrutskie et al. 2006, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation), HyperLEDA (Paturel et al. 2003), GOLDMine (Gavazzi et al. 2003).
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