Neanderthal and Mammuthus interactions at EDAR Culebro 1 (Madrid, Spain)

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The association between elephants of the Mammuthus and Palaeoloxodon types and lithic tools is a recurrent phenomenon in Pleistocene sites. This has been a heavily debated topic. Thanks to the latest discoveries of cut and percussion marks in several archaeological sites, direct evidence of butchery practices generated by humans on elephants has been identified. Indirect evidence may also suggest a type of feeding activity. In this paper, the open-air site of EDAR Culebro 1 (Madrid, Spain) is presented, as well as a discussion about the possible interactions occurring between Neanderthals and Mammuthus cf. intermedius at this archaeological site.
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