Worth the risk? Terrorism-induced fear of flying

dc.contributor.authorWeiss, David J.
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Richard S.
dc.contributor.authorRosoff, Heather
dc.contributor.authorBaumert, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorBuesa Blanco, Mikel
dc.contributor.authorGonzález Gómez, Javier
dc.contributor.authorValiño Castro, Aurelia
dc.contributor.authorShavit, Tal
dc.contributor.authorRosenboim, Mosi
dc.description.abstractWe conducted two bi-national experiments regarding emotional and behavioral responses to a terrorist plot against commercial flights, examining both feelings and projected action. The studies employed hypothetical scenarios in which terrorists attacked airplanes with shoulder-fired missiles as they were landing or taking off from an international airport. The scenarios were built around two factorially crossed manipulated variables, each with three levels: (1) government announcements or actions (2) social norm, expressed as variation in airline ticket sales. Each respondent read a questionnaire containing only one of the nine scenarios. Experiment 1 was conducted in Spain and California (n = 360, 50% female), Experiment 2 in Israel and California (n = 504, 50% female). In both studies, fear and flight plans were not differentially affected by governmental response or social norm. Women expressed more fear than men. Experiment 1 examined the purpose of the trip. Most respondents would not change a planned flight to attend a close friend’s wedding or important job interview, but a substantial number would postpone a vacation or drive to a different location. Experiment 2 featured escalating attacks. These yielded increased fear and more canceled trips. Within both studies, responses were similar across countries despite national differences in direct experience with terrorism.
dc.description.abstractSe realizaron dos experimentos bi-nacionales con respecto a las respuestas emocionales y conductuales a un plan terrorista contra vuelos comerciales, examinando ambas cosas: sentimientos y proyectos de acción. Los estudios emplearon escenarios hipotéticos en los que los terroristas atacaron los aviones con misiles disparados desde el hombro, ya que estaban aterrizando o despegando desde un aeropuerto internacional. Los escenarios fueron construidos alrededor de dos variables factoriales cruzadas, cada uno con tres niveles: (1) los anuncios o acciones del gobierno (2) norma social, expresada como la variación en la venta de billetes de avión. Cada encuestado leyó un cuestionario que contenía sólo uno de los nueve escenarios. El experimento 1 se realizó en España y California (n = 360, 50% mujeres), el experimento 2 en Israel y California (n = 504, 50% mujeres). En ambos estudios, el miedo y los planes de vuelo no fueron diferencialmente afectados por la respuesta gubernamental o la norma social. Las mujeres expresaron más miedo que los hombres. El experimento 1 examinó el propósito del viaje. La mayoría de los encuestados no cambiarían un vuelo planeado para asistir a la boda de un amigo cercano o para una importante entrevista de trabajo, pero un número considerable de participantes podrían posponer unas vacaciones o ir en coche a un lugar diferente. El experimento 2 contó con la escalada de los ataques. Estas aumentaron el temor y la cantidad de viajes cancelados. En ambos estudios, las respuestas fueron similares en todos los países a pesar de las diferencias nacionales y la experiencia directa con el terrorismo.
dc.description.departmentDepto. de Economía Aplicada, Pública y Política
dc.description.facultyFac. de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales
dc.identifier.citationAnderson, N. H. (1981). Foundations of information integration theory . New York: Academic Press. Anderson, N. H. (1982). Methods of information integration theory . New York: Academic Press. Birnbaum, M. H. (1999). How to show that 9 > 221: Collect judgments in a betweensubjects design. Psychological Methods, 4, 243-249. Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A. M., & Fischhoff, B. (2007). Can adolescents predict significant life events? Journal of Adolescent Health, 41 , 208-210. Burns, W. J., & Slovic, P. (2007). The diffusion of fear: Modeling community response to a terrorist strike. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, 4 , 1-20. Burns, W. J., Slovic, P., Kasperson, R. E., Kasperson, J. X., Renn, O., & Emani, S. (1993). Incorporating structural models into research on the social amplification of risk: Implications for theory construction and decision making. Risk Analysis, 13, 611-623. Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Perrin, W., & Downs, J. (2004). Travel risks in a time of terror: Judgments and choices. Risk Analysis, 24 , 1301-1309. Flynn, J., Slovic, P., & Mertz, C.K. (1994). Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Analysis, 14 , 1101-1108. Fruchart, E., Rulence-Pâques, P., & Mullet, E. (2007). Ecological validity test of laboratory studies of information integration. Teorie & Modelli, 12, 281-288. Gallup News Service. (2007). Security hassles at airports are air travelers' biggest complaints . Retrieved from Göritz, A. S., & Weiss, D. J. (2014). Behavioral and emotional responses to escalating terrorism threat. Mind & Society, 13 , 285-295. Gray, C., Russell, P., & Blockley, S. (1991). The effects upon helping behaviour of wearing pro-gay identification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30 , 171-178. Grice, G. R. (1966). Dependence of empirical laws upon the source of experimental variation. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 488-498. Hsee, C. K., & Zhang, J. (2010). General evaluability theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 343-355. Hyams, K., Murphy, F., & Wessely, S. (2002). Combating terrorism: Recommendations for dealing with the long term health consequences of a chemical, biological or nuclear attack. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 27 , 273-291. Kasperson, R. E., Renn, O., Slovic, P., Brown, H., Emel, J., Goble, R., … Ratick, S. (1988). The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 8, 177–187. Levin, I. P., Louviere, J. J., Schepanski, A. A., & Norman, K. L. (1983). External validity of laboratory studies of information integration. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 31 , 173-193. Levitt, S. B., & List, J. A. (2007). Viewpoint: On the generalizability of lab behaviour to the field. Canadian Journal of Economics, 40, 347-370. Louviere, J. J. (1988). Conjoint analysis modelling of stated preferences: A review of theory, methods, recent developments, and external validity. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 20 , 93-119. Mandel, D. R. (2005). Are risk assessments of a terrorist attack coherent? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11, 277-288. McArdle, S. C., Rosoff, H., & John, R. S. (2012). The dynamics of evolving beliefs, concerns, emotions, and behavioral avoidance following 9/11: A longitudinal analysis of representative archival samples. Risk Analysis, 32 , 744-761. Okpara, U., & Bier, V. M. (2008).Securing passenger aircraft from the threat of Man-Portable-Air Defense Systems (MANPADS). Risk Analysis, 28, 1583-1599. Pat-Horenczyk, R., Peled, O., Miron, T., Brom, D., Villa, Y., & Chemtob, C. (2007). Risktaking behaviors among Israeli adolescents exposed to recurrent terrorism: Provoking danger under continuous threat? American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 , 66-72. Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., Mazzocco, K., & Dickert, S. (2006). Numeracy and decision making. Psychological Science, 17 , 407–413. Post, J. M. (2007). The mind of the terrorist . New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Powell, L., & Self, W. (2004). Personalized fear, personalized control, and reactions to the September 11 attacks. North American Journal of Psychology, 6 , 55-70. Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (2008). Numeracy, ratio bias, and denominator neglect in judgments of risk and probability. Learning and Individual Differences, 18 , 89–107. Reyna, V. F., & Farley, F. (2006). Risk and rationality in adolescent decision making: Implications for theory, practice, and public policy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, 1-44. Rosoff, H. (2009). Using decision and risk analysis to assist in policy making about terrorism. Dissertation Abstracts International, 70, 2722. Sjöberg, L. (2003) The different dynamics of personal and general risk. Risk Management: An International Journal, 5, 19-34. Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236 , 280-285. Sunstein, C. (2003). Terrorism and probability neglect. The Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 26 , 121-136. Van Acker, F., & Theuns, P. (2010). A comparison of Web-based and face-toface Functional Measurement experiments. Psicológica, 31 , 491-508. Van Acker, F., Theuns, P., Hofmans, J., & Mairesse, O. (2007). Test of the effect of scale labels on response linearity. Teorie & Modelli, 12 , 269-276. von Winterfeldt, D., & O’Sullivan, T. M. (2006). Should we protect commercial airplanes against surface-to-air missile attacks by terrorists? Decision Analysis, 3 , 63-75. Weiss, D. J. (2006). Analysis of variance and functional measurement: A practical guide . New York: Oxford University Press. Weiss, D. J. (2009). Nominal analysis of “variance”. Behavior Research Methods, 41 , 901-908. Weiss, D. J. (2010). Using nominal data to examine information integration. Psicológica, 31 , 441-459. Weiss, D. J. (2012). The use of factorial forecasting to predict public response. Psicológica, 33 , 695-710. Weiss, D. J. (2014). Evaluating cognitive models at the group level. Psicológica, 35 , 405-422. West, D. M., & Orr, M. (2005). Managing citizen fears: Public attitudes toward urban terrorism. Urban Affairs Review, 41, 93-105. Wolff, K., & Larsen, S. (2014). Can terrorism make us feel safer? Risk perceptions and worries before and after the July 22nd attacks. Annals of Tourism Research, 44 , 200-209. Yechiam, E., Barron, G., & Erev, I. (2005). The role of personal experience in contributing to different patterns of response to rare terrorist attacks. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 , 430-439.
dc.identifier.doi10.11144/Javeriana.upsy15 -3.wrti
dc.identifier.officialurl -3.wrti
dc.journal.titleUniversitas Psychologica
dc.publisherPontificia Universidad Javeriana
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access
dc.subject.keywordEmotional response
dc.subject.keywordNominal data
dc.subject.keywordProjected action
dc.subject.keywordRespuesta emocional
dc.subject.keywordDatos nominales
dc.subject.keywordAcción proyectada
dc.subject.ucmInvestigación social
dc.subject.ucmOpinión pública (Sociología)
dc.subject.unesco6114.15 Opinión Publica
dc.subject.unesco53 Ciencias Económicas
dc.titleWorth the risk? Terrorism-induced fear of flying
dc.title.alternative¿Vale la pena el riesgo? Miedo inducido por el terrorismo a volar
dc.typejournal article
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
No Thumbnail Available
Weiss-Worth the risk (OA).pdf
367.95 KB
Adobe Portable Document Format