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Discovery and mass measurement of the hot, transiting, Earth-sized planet, GJ 3929 b

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2022-03-02
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We report the discovery of GJ 3929 b, a hot Earth-sized planet orbiting the nearby M3.5 V dwarf star, GJ 3929 (G 180-18, TOI-2013). Joint modelling of photometric observations from TESS sectors 24 and 25 together with 73 spectroscopic observations from CARMENES and follow-up transit observations from SAINT-EX, LCOGT, and OSN yields a planet radius of R-b = 1.150 +/- 0.040 R-circle plus, a mass of M-b = 1.21 +/- 0.42 M-circle plus, and an orbital period of P-b = 2.6162745 +/- 0.0000030 d. The resulting density of rho(b) = 4.4 +/- 1.6 g cm(-3) is compatible with the Earth's mean density of about 5.5 g cm(-3). Due to the apparent brightness of the host star (J = 8.7 mag) and its small size, GJ 3929 b is a promising target for atmospheric characterisation with the JWST. Additionally, the radial velocity data show evidence for another planet candidate with P-[c] = 14.303 +/- 0.035 d, which is likely unrelated to the stellar rotation period, P-rot = 122 +/- 13 d, which we determined from archival HATNet and ASAS-SN photometry combined with newly obtained TJO data.
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© ESO 2022. Artículo firmado por 67 autores. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almera, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (MaxPlanck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Insitut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucia. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. This paper is based on observations made with the MuSCAT3 instrument, developed by the Astrobiology Center and under financial supports by JSPS KAKENHI (JP18H05439) and JST PRESTO (JPMJPR1775), at Faulkes Telescope North on Maui, HI, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory. This work includes observations carried out at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM), Baja California, México.; We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4], PID2019-107061GB-C64, PID2019-110689RB-100, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, and the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" and "María de Maeztu" awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (CEX2019-000920-S), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-163967 and PP00P2-190080), the Centre for Space and Habitability of the University of Bern, the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS, supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft priority program SPP 1992 "Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets" (JE 701/5-1), the Excellence Cluster ORIGINS, which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Germany's Excellence Strategy (EXC-2094 -390783311), NASA (NNX17AG24G), JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP18H05439, JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR1761, the Astrobiology Center of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) (Grant Number AB031010), the UNAM-DGAPA PAPIIT (BG101321), the "la Caixa" Foundation (100010434), the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie (No. 847648, fellowship code LCF/BQ/PI20/11760023), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. Data were partly collected with the 90-cm telescope at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA, CSIC). We deeply acknowledge the OSN telescope operators for their very appreciable support. The analysis of this work has made use of a wide variety of public available software packages that are not referenced in the manuscript: AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), astropy Astropy Collaboration (2018), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), numpy (Oliphant 2006), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), tqdm (da Costa-Luis 2019), pandas (The pandas development team 2020), seaborn (Waskom et al. 2020), lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration 2018), radvel (Fulton et al. 2018), batman (Kreidberg 2015), dynesty (Speagle 2020), george (Ambikasaran et al. 2015), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017), PyFITS (Barrett et al. 2012), astrobase Waqas Bhatti et al. (2020), scikit-learn (Pedregosa et al. 2011), TAPIR (Jensen 2013), Astrometry.net (Lang et al. 2010), photutils (Bradley et al. 2021), lmfit (Newville et al. 2021), tpfplotter (www.github.com/jlillo/tpfplotter).
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