Publication:
Melatonin–sulforaphane hybrid <scp>ITH</scp>12674 induces neuroprotection in oxidative stress conditions by a ‘drug–prodrug’ mechanism of action

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Publication Date
2015-02-10
Authors
Egea, Javier
Buendia, Izaskun
Parada, Esther
Rada, Patricia
Cuadrado, Antonio
López, Manuela G.
García García, Antonio
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Wiley
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Background and purpose: Neurodegenerative diseases are a major problem afflicting ageing populations; however, there are no effective treatments to stop their progression. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are common factors in their pathogenesis. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of oxidative stress, and melatonin is an endogenous hormone with antioxidative properties that reduces its levels with ageing. We have designed a new compound that combines the effects of melatonin with Nrf2 induction properties, with the idea of achieving improved neuroprotective properties. Experimental approach: Compound ITH12674 is a hybrid of melatonin and sulforaphane designed to exert a dual drug-prodrug mechanism of action. We obtained the proposed hybrid in a single step. To test its neuroprotective properties, we used different in vitro models of oxidative stress related to neurodegenerative diseases and brain ischaemia. Key results: ITH12674 showed an improved neuroprotective profile compared to that of melatonin and sulforaphane. ITH12674 (i) mediated a concentration-dependent protective effect in cortical neurons subjected to oxidative stress; (ii) decreased reactive oxygen species production; (iii) augmented GSH concentrations in cortical neurons; (iv) enhanced the Nrf2-antioxidant response element transcriptional response in transfected HEK293T cells; and (v) protected organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation from stress by increasing the expression of haem oxygenase-1 and reducing free radical production. Conclusion and implications: ITH12674 combines the signalling pathways of the parent compounds to improve its neuroprotective properties. This opens a new line of research for such hybrid compounds to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
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Egea J, Buendia I, Parada E, Navarro E, Rada P, Cuadrado A, López MG, García AG, León R. Melatonin-sulforaphane hybrid ITH12674 induces neuroprotection in oxidative stress conditions by a 'drug-prodrug' mechanism of action. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;172(7):1807-21. doi: 10.1111/bph.13025
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