The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Stellar atmospheric parameters of target stars with STEPARSYN

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We determined effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities for a sample of 343 M dwarfs observed with CARMENES, the double-channel, high-resolution spectrograph installed at the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. We employed STEPARSYN, a Bayesian spectral synthesis implementation particularly designed to infer the stellar atmospheric parameters of late-type stars following a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We made use of the BT-Settl model atmospheres and the radiative transfer code turbospectrum to compute a grid of synthetic spectra around 75 magnetically insensitive Fel and Til lines plus the TiO gamma and epsilon bands. To avoid any potential degeneracy in the parameter space, we imposed Bayesian priors on T-eff and log g based on the comprehensive, multi-band photometric data available for the sample. We find that this methodology is suitable down to M7.0 V, where refractory metals such as Ti are expected to condense in the stellar photospheres. The derived Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] range from 3000 to 4200 K, 4.5 to 5.3 dex, and -0.7 to 0.2 dex, respectively. Although our T (eff) scale is in good agreement with the literature, we report large discrepancies in the [Fe/H] scales, which might arise from the different methodologies and sets of lines considered. However, our [Fe/H] is in agreement with the metallicity distribution of FGK-type stars in the solar neighbourhood and correlates well with the kinematic membership of the targets in the Galactic populations. Lastly, excellent agreement in T (eff) is found for M dwarfs with interferometric angular diameter measurements, as well as in the [Fe/H] between the components in the wide physical FGK+M and M+M systems included in our sample.
© ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 27 autores. We thank the anonymous referee for the insightful comments and suggestions that improved the manuscript of the paper. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano en Andalucía at Calar Alto (CAHA). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Plank Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Plank-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciences de l'Espai, Institut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenberg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Andaluz), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of BadenWurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the research grants UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020 and UIDP/04434/2020, national funds PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017, by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) through COMPETE2020 Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacao (POCI-01-0145FEDER-028953), and the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER/ERF) through fellowship FPU15/01476, and projects AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, AYA2014-56359-P, BES-2017-080769, and RYC-2013-14875. The authors also acknowledge financial support from the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" and "María de Maeztu" awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. This work has made use of the VALD database, operated at Uppsala University, the Institute of Astronomy RAS in Moscow, and the University of Vienna, and of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. V.M.P. acknowledges financial support from NASA through grant NNX17AG24G. S.V.J. acknowledges the support of the DFG priority program SPP 1992 "Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets" (JE 701/5-1). E.M. would also like to warmly thank the staff at the Hamburger Sternwarte for their hospitality during his stay funded by project EST18/00162. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (INTA-CSIC).
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