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Hipersensibilidad dentinaria, desgaste dental y factores de riesgo asociados. Estudio epidemiológico observacional transversal.

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2022
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Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de hipersensibilidad dentinaria (HD) en pacientes mayores de 18 años que acudieron a la Facultad de Odontología de la UCM, además de determinar la prevalencia del desgaste dental y analizar los factores de riesgo de higiene oral y estilo de vida asociados a estas dos condiciones. Material y métodos: estudio epidemiológico, observacional, transversal, parte de un estudio multicéntrico europeo en el que se incluyeron casos de forma consecutiva. Se utilizó un cuestionario en el que el paciente contestaba preguntas acerca de sus hábitos de higiene oral y estilo de vida. Posteriormente, se realizó un examen clínico para determinar la presencia de HD y desgaste dental. Para la HD se utilizaron dos índices; el índice de Schiff y un índice binario (presencia o ausencia de HD), mientras que para el desgaste dental se utilizó el índice BEWE (Basic Erosive Wear Examinarion). Resultados: se reclutaron un total de 249 pacientes de los cuales el 61% eran mujeres. El rango de edad fue de 18-84 años. La prevalencia de HD fue del 48,2%, tanto para el índice de Schiff como para el índice binario. La prevalencia de desgaste dental fue del 63,5%. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para la variable edad. Se encontraron como posibles factores de riesgo para la HD, el reflujo y los vómitos. Para el desgaste dental se presentaron como posibles factores de riesgo el uso de cepillo eléctrico, no haber tenido ortodoncia, y el reflujo gastroesofágico. Además, se observó que existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto a la HD en los pacientes que tienen desgaste dental y los que no. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de la HD fue del 48,2% y la del desgaste dental del 63,5%. Parece que estas dos condiciones están relacionadas entre sí. La odds de HD es 7,38 veces superior para los pacientes que tienen desgaste dental.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity (HD) in patients over 18 years of age who attended the UCM School of Dentistry, to determine the prevalence of dental wear and to analyze the associated oral hygiene and lifestyle risk factors to these two conditions. Material and methods: epidemiological, observational, cross-sectional study, part of a European multicenter study in which consecutive cases were included. A questionnaire was used in which patients answered questions about their oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. Subsequently, a clinical examination was performed to determine the presence of HD and dental wear. For HD, two indices were used; the Schiff index and a binary index (presence or absence of HD), while BEWE (Basic Erosive Wear Examination) index was used for dental wear. Results: A total of 249 patients were recruited, of which 61% were women. The age range was 18-84 years. The prevalence of HD was 48.2%, both for the Schiff index and for the binary index. The prevalence of dental wear was 63.5%. Statistically significant differences were observed for the age variable. Reflux and vomiting were found as possible risk factors for HD. For dental wear, the use of an electric brush, not having had orthodontics, and gastroesophageal reflux were presented as possible risk factors. In addition, it was observed that there are statistically significant differences in terms of HD in patients who have dental wear and those who do not. Conclusions: The prevalence of HD was 48.2% and that of dental wear was 63.5%. It seems that these two conditions are related to each other. The odds of HD is 7.38 times higher for patients with dental wear
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