Publication: The Gaia-ESO survey: calibrating the lithium-age relation with open clusters and associations I. Cluster age range and initial membership selections
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Context. Previous studies of open clusters have shown that lithium depletion is not only strongly age dependent but also shows a complex pattern with other parameters that is not yet understood. For pre- and main-sequence late-type stars, these parameters include metallicity, mixing mechanisms, convection structure, rotation, and magnetic activity. Aims. We perform a thorough membership analysis for a large number of stars observed within the Gaia-ESO survey (GES) in the field of 20 open clusters, ranging in age from young clusters and associations, to intermediate-age and old open clusters. Methods. Based on the parameters derived from the GES spectroscopic observations, we obtained lists of candidate members for each of the clusters in the sample by deriving radial velocity distributions and studying the position of the kinematic selections in the EW(Li)-versus-Teff plane to obtain lithium members. We used gravity indicators to discard field contaminants and studied [Fe/H] metallicity to further confirm the membership of the candidates. We also made use of studies using recent data from the Gaia DR1 and DR2 releases to assess our member selections. Results. We identified likely member candidates for the sample of 20 clusters observed in GES (iDR4) with UVES and GIRAFFE, and conducted a comparative study that allowed us to characterize the properties of these members as well as identify field contaminant stars, both lithium-rich giants and non-giant outliers. Conclusions. This work is the first step towards the calibration of the lithium–age relation and its dependence on other GES parameters. During this project we aim to use this relation to infer the ages of GES field stars, and identify their potential membership to young associations and stellar kinematic groups of different ages.
© ESO 2020. Artículo firmado por 36 autores. Financial support was provided by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) from project AYA2016-79425-C3-1-P. We acknowledge the support from INAF and Ministero dell’ Istruzione, dell’ Universitá’ e della Ricerca (MIUR) in the form of the grant “Premiale VLT 2012”. T.B. was funded by the project grant “The New Milky Way” from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. J.I.G.H. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) under the 2003 Ramón y Cajal program RYC-2013-14875, and also from the Spanish Ministry project MICIU AYA2017-86389-P. E.M. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación through fellowship FPU15/01476. A.G. acknowledges support from the European Union FP7 programme from the UK space agency. U.H. acknowledges support from the Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA/Rymdstyrelsen). F.J.E. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MINECO/FEDER through the grant AyA2017-84089. S.G.S acknowledges the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through national funds and research grant (project ref. UID/FIS/04434/2013, and PTDC/FIS-AST/7073/2014). S.G.S also acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigador FCT contract of reference IF/00028/2014 and POPH/FSE (EC) by FEDER funding through the program “Programa Operacional de Factores de Competitividad” – COMPETE MT also acknowledges support from the FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds (PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017) and by FEDER – Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI-01-0145-FEDER028953). TM acknowledges support from the State Research Agency (AEI) of the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) under grant AYA2017- 88254-P Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme focusID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the GES Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360 and by the Leverhulme Trust through grant RPG-2012-541. The results presented here benefit from discussions held during GES workshops and conferences supported by the ESF (European Science Foundation) through the GREAT Research Network Programme. This work was also supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through the research grants UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020 and UIDP/04434/2020. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos. esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of the VizieR database (Ochsenbein et al. 2000) and the SIMBAD database (Wenger et al. 2000), both operated at CDS, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, France. This research also made use of the WEBDA database, operated at the Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics of the Masaryk University, and the interactive graphical viewer and editor for tabular data TOPCAT (Taylor 2005). For the analysis of the distributions of RV and metallicity we used RStudio Team (2015). Integrated Development for R. RStudio, Inc., Boston, MA (http://www.rstudio.com/). Finally, we would like to thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments and suggestions.