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El impacto de las innovaciones de producto y de proceso sobre el empleo industrial

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2015
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Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Instituto de Análisis Industrial y Financiero
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Este trabajo pretende analizar de forma empírica los efectos de la introducción de innovaciones de proceso y de producto sobre el empleo a nivel de empresa mediante el uso de datos provenientes de la Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales referidos al periodo 1998-2010. De este modo, se podrá contrastar cual es la relación existente entre ambas figuras, lo que permitirá aportar evidencia en el caso del sector manufacturero español. Para efectuar dicho análisis, se va a seguir la metodología utilizada por Lachenmaier y Rottmann (2006), los cuales usan variables dummy de innovación en la formulación de la ecuación de demanda de trabajo a nivel de empresa. Además, se van a incorporar otros datos de la encuesta para enriquecer el análisis: por ejemplo, se van a introducir variables que referidas a la situación del mercado en el que compite la empresa y a la evolución de su cuota de mercado. Las estimaciones efectuadas permiten llegar a la siguiente conclusión: las empresas que desarrollan más innovaciones de proceso y/o innovaciones de producto tienden a experimentar mayores aumentos en sus tasas de variación del empleo.
This study is aimed at the empirical analysis of the effects of product and process innovations on employment at the firm level by means of data from the Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales, which covers years from 1998 to 2010. Thus, the relationship between both topics will be tested, so that it will be possible to provide evidence regarding Spanish manufacturing sector. In order to do so, the methodology used by Lachenmaier and Rottmann (2006) is going to be followed, which consist of the establishment of dummy variables related to innovation when it comes to formulate the employment demand equation at a firm level. Furthermore, additional data form the survey is going to be used in order to improve the assessment, such as the situation of the market in which the firm competes and the evolution of its market share. Estimations carried out enables us to come to the following conclusion: the more that firms develop process and/or product innovations, the more their employment growth rate increases.
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