Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of K3, K3XF, and Twisted File Nickel-Titanium Files under Continuous Rotation or Reciprocating Motion

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Introduction New designs and alloys and different motions have been introduced to increase the cyclic fatigue (CF) resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The aim of this study was to compare the CF resistance of K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), K3XF (SybronEndo), and TF (SybronEndo) files under continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. Methods A total of 210 files (30-tip diameter, 0.06 fixed taper), 60 K3, 60 K3XF, and 90 TF files, were divided into 7 groups (30 files each): K3-C, K3XF-C, and TF1-C were rotated at 300 rpm; TF2-C was rotated at 500 rpm; and K3-R, K3XF-R, and TF1-R were used in a reciprocating motion. CF resistance was tested in stainless steel, curved canals (60°, r = 3 mm) until fracture, and the time to fracture was recorded. The mean half-life, beta, and eta were calculated for each group and were compared with Weibull analysis. Results The probability of a longer mean life was greater under reciprocating motion for all of the files (100% for K3, 87% for K3XF, and 99% for TF). Under continuous rotation, K3XF was more resistant than K3 and TF. TF lasted significantly longer than K3. TF was more resistant to CF when rotated at 300 rpm instead of 500 rpm. Under reciprocating motion, there were no significant differences between K3XF and TF mean lives, but both were significantly longer than the K3 mean life (78% for TF and 86% for K3XF). Conclusions Reciprocating motion and R-phase increase CF resistance.