Extinctions of vascular plants in Spain

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The catalogue of extinct plants in Spain, comprising 27 taxa is updated. Included are four species not previously classifi ed as extinct in Spain: Cyclamen purpurascens , Grammitis quaerenda , Stratiotes aloides and Vallisneria spiralis . We analyze the causes of extinction and explore the possible infl uence of botanical collections in species loss. Th e obtained data suggest that habitat loss has been the main cause of extinction and the impact of collecting is demonstrated to be irrelevant. We list the 21 species that have been designated as extinct in previous catalogues but which no longer have that status, 14 of them having been recovered thanks to botanical exploration and collection works.