The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Chromospheric modeling of M2-3V stars with PHOENIX

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Chromospheric modeling of observed differences in stellar activity lines is imperative to fully understand the upper atmospheres of late-type stars. We present one-dimensional parametrized chromosphere models computed with the atmosphere code PHOENIX using an underlying photosphere of 3500 K. The aim of this work is to model chromospheric lines of a sample of 50 M2–3 dwarfs observed in the framework of the CARMENES, the Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs, exoplanet survey. The spectral comparison between observed data and models is performed in the chromospheric lines of Na I D_(2), Hα, and the bluest Ca II infrared triplet line to obtain best-fit models for each star in the sample. We find that for inactive stars a single model with a VAL C-like temperature structure is sufficient to describe simultaneously all three lines adequately. Active stars are rather modeled by a combination of an inactive and an active model, also giving the filling factors of inactive and active regions. Moreover, the fitting of linear combinations on variable stars yields relationships between filling factors and activity states, indicating that more active phases are coupled to a larger portion of active regions on the surface of the star.
© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 29 autores. D.H. acknowledges funding by the DLR under DLR 50 OR1701. B.F. acknowledges funding by the DFG under Cz 222/1-1 and Schm 1032/69-1. S.C. acknowledges support through DFG projects SCH 1382/2-1 and SCHM 1032/66-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Science [through projects AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2016- 80435-C2-1-R, AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, and AYA2018-84089], the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. We thank J. M. Fontenla for providing us with the atmospheric structure of his chromospheric model for GJ 832 (Fontenla et al. 2016) for comparison purposes. CHIANTI is a collaborative project involving George Mason University, the University of Michigan (USA) and the University of Cambridge (UK).
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