Speciation analysis of platinum antitumoral drugs in impacted tissues

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Chemical compounds containing platinum have been employed since 1978 as drugs to beat certain type of tumours. Nevertheless, besides of their exceptional antitumoral properties, these drugs also have important deleterious side effects, such as, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. A study of Pt accumulation and a speciation analysis has been performed by ICP-MS in samples from kidney and inner ear in a controlled population of Wistar rats treated with, either, cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin. The results on Pt accumulation point out to drug structure and not only to Pt content as the responsible for the alteration of organ functionality. Speciation studies in the samples from kidney and inner ear were performed coupling two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) to ICP-MS. Size exclusion (SEC) and anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) was employed for 2D orthogonal separation. After these separations, free drug peaks were not observed in any of the samples. The binding of Pt to biomolecules was demonstrated by SEC and, independently of the drug used, Pt eluted as two main bands with molecular weights of 12 kDa and 25–65 kDa for inner ear samples, and as two different bands with 20 kDa and 50–60 kDa in the samples from kidney. However, the relative band intensity presented important differences for the three drugs. Using the same chromatographic conditions, it was shown that a metallothionein (MT) standard eluted in the same position as some of the cytosolic Pt-biomolecules. High Pt-containing fractions eluting from the SEC column were analysed by anion exchange FPLC after a preconcentration step. Among the different preconcentration methods tested, sample focusing on the head of the FPLC column shows main advantages. In this way, the separation by 2D chromatography of the high molecular Pt-species has been considerably improved.