Mass and density of the transiting hot and rocky super-Earth LHS 1478 b (TOI-1640 b)

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One of the main objectives of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission is the discovery of small rocky planets around relatively bright nearby stars. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of the transiting super-Earth planet orbiting LHS 1478 (TOI-1640). The star is an inactive red dwarf (J ∼ 9.6 mag and spectral type m3 V) with mass and radius estimates of 0.20 ± 0.01 Mꙩ and 0.25 ± 0.01 Rꙩ , respectively, and an effective temperature of 3381 ± 54 K. It was observed by TESS in four sectors. These data revealed a transit-like feature with a period of 1.949 days. We combined the TESS data with three ground-based transit measurements, 57 radial velocity (RV) measurements from CARMENES, and 13 RV measurements from IRD, determining that the signal is produced by a planet with a mass of 2.33^(+0.20)_(−0.20) Mꙩ and a radius of 1.24^(+0.05)_(−0.05) Rꙩ. The resulting bulk density of this planet is 6.67 g cm^(−3) , which is consistent with a rocky planet with an Fe- and MgSiO_(3)-dominated composition. Although the planet would be too hot to sustain liquid water on its surface (its equilibrium temperature is about ∼595 K, suggesting a Venus-like atmosphere), spectroscopic metrics based on the capabilities of the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope and the fact that the host star is rather inactive indicate that this is one of the most favorable known rocky exoplanets for atmospheric characterization.
© ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 55 autores. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaf through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. This paper included data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA HighEnd Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This work made use of observations from the LCOGT network. LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP), which is funded by the National Science Foundation. We acknowledge financial support from STFC grants ST/P000592/1 and ST/T000341/1, NASA grant NNX17AG24G, the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, PGC2018-098153-B-C3[1,3] and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme, Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows Grant (JP20J21872), JSPS KAKENHI Grant (22000005, JP15H02063,JP18H01265, JP18H05439, JP18H05442, JP19K14783), JST PRESTO Grant (JPMJPR1775), and University Research Support Grant from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
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