Towards the standardization of photothermal measurements of iron oxide nanoparticles in two biological windows

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A systematic study on laser-induced heating carried out in two biological windows (800 nm and 1053 nm) for Fe_(3)O_(4) nanoparticles in water suspension showed evidence of the strong dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR) on extrinsic parameters such as the vessel volume or laser spot size. The results show that a minimum of 100 mu L must be used in order to obtain vessel-size-independent SARs. In addition, at a constant intensity but different laser powers and spot size ratios, the SARs can differ by a three-fold factor, showing that the laser power and irradiated area strongly affect the heating curves for both wavelengths. The infrared molecular absorber IRA 980B was characterized under the same experimental conditions, and the results confirm the universality of the SARs' dependence on these extrinsic parameters. Based on these results, we propose using solutions of IRA 980B as a standard probe for SAR measurements and employing the ratio SAR(iron oxide)/SAR(IRA 980B) to compare different measurements performed in different laboratories. This measurement standardization allows us to extract more accurate information about the heating performance of different nanoparticles.
©2023 By the author(s) Licensee MDPI This research was funded by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN), grant number PID2021-123112OB-C21, and Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid by S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST. The authors also acknowledge the Sistema Nacional de Garantía Juvenil through the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid for providing a pre-doctoral contract, PEJ-2020-AI/IND-17711.