Gender asymmetries in news reports

dc.contributor.authorMañoso Pacheco, Lidia
dc.description.abstractWomen have traditionally been defined in journalistic studies as the ‘unaccessed voice group’ due to their underrepresentation in most media coverage, a fact commonly described in linguistics as ‘symbolic annihilation’ (Caldas-Coulthard 2002; Armstrong 2004). Although many scholars state that linguistic stereotypes have been weakening over time, there is a prevailing view that women are still experiencing linguistic discrimination in the age of digital storytelling. This paper discusses gender inequality by means of an in-depth study of females as sources of information in newspaper discourse, based on a corpus of 68 online news items published in four broadsheet British and Spanish newspapers: The Times, The Guardian, El Mundo and El País. The research mainly focuses on the possible relation between the gender of the source and that of the news reporter, as well as the tendencies in the depiction of female sources in reporting segments. The analysis reveals a continuing underrepresentation of women, though less noticeable in the Spanish news group. Contrary to possible expectations, both corpora coincide in defining female sources on a professional basis. The results also suggest that the predominance of male sources of information, rather than being tied to the ‘familiarity’ criterion, is institutionally biased.
dc.description.abstractTradicionalmente las mujeres han sido definidas en estudios periodísticos como ‘la voz inaccesible del grupo’ debido a su infrarrepresentación en la mayor parte de la cobertura mediática, un hecho que se ha descrito comúnmente en lingüística como ‘aniquilación simbólica’ (Caldas-Coulthard 2002; Armstrong 2004). Aunque muchos expertos afirman que los estereotipos lingüísticos se han ido reduciendo con el tiempo, hay una postura predominante que establece que las mujeres todavía están experimentando discriminación lingüística en la era de la narración digital. Este artículo aborda la desigualdad de género por medio de un estudio exhaustivo de las mujeres como fuentes de información en el discurso periodístico, basado en un corpus de 68 noticias online publicadas en cuatro periódicos británicos y españoles en línea de gran tirada: The Times, The Guardian, El Mundo y El País. La investigación se centra principalmente en la posible relación entre el género de la fuente y el del periodista, así como en las tendencias en la representación de las fuentes femeninas en los segmentos citativos. El análisis revela la continua infrarrepresentación de la mujer, aunque este hecho es menos evidente en el grupo de noticias españolas. En contra de posibles expectativas, ambos corpus coinciden en definir las fuentes femeninas según su profesión. Los resultados también sugieren que el predominio de las fuentes masculinas de información, en lugar de estar ligado al criterio de la ‘familiaridad’, se debe al sesgo institucional.
dc.description.departmentDepto. de Estudios Ingleses: Lingüística y Literatura
dc.description.facultyFac. de Filología
dc.identifier.citationArmstrong, Cory and Fangfang Gao. 2011. “An examination across platforms and coverage areas”. Journalism Studies 12 (4). 490–505. Armstrong, Cory and Michael Boyle. 2011. “Views from the Margins: News Coverage of Women in Abortion Protests, 1960–2006”. Mass Communication and Society 14. 153–177. Armstrong, Cory and Michelle Nelson. 2005. “How newspaper sources trigger gender stereotypes”. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 82 (4): 820–837. Armstrong, Cory, Wood, Michelle and Michelle Nelson. 2010. “Female news professionals in local and national broadcast news during the buildup to the Iraq war”. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50 (1). 78–94. Armstrong, Cory. 2004. “The influence of reporter gender on source selection in newspapers stories”. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 81 (1): 139–154. Bell, Allan. 2001 (6th edition). The Language of News Media. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Black, Lynsey. 2015. “The Representation of Offending Women in the Irish Press: A Content Analysis”. Irish Probation Journal 12. Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen. 2002. “On reporting reporting: the representation of speech in factual and fictional narratives”. In Coulthard, Malcolm (ed.) Advances in Written Text Analysis. London and New York: Routledge, 295–308. Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen. 2004. “From discourse analysis to critical discourse analysis: the differential re-representation of women and men speaking in written news”. In Sinclair, John, Hoey, Michael and Gwyneth Fox (eds.) Techniques of Description: Spoken and Written Discourse. London and New York: Routledge. 196–209. Casserly, Josephine. 2016. “How the media can promote gender equality”. <>. Accessed February 28, 2018. Catalyst. 2014. “Catalyst Study Reveals Financial Performance is Higher For Companies with More Women at the Top”. <>. Accessed March 6, 2018. Cullity, Jocelyn and Prakash Younger. 2009. “Gender Imbalance in International Internet News: a case study of the BBC”. Media, Culture & Society 31 (6). 999–1009. Davidson, Colette. 2016. “Five strategies for creating gender equality in the media”. <>. Accessed February 28, 2018. DG IPOL Policy Departments. 2018. “Gender Equality in the Media Sector”. <>. Accessed March 6, 2018. Diedong, Africanus. 2016. Responsible Journalism and Quest for Professional Standards in Ghana. Accra New Town, Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services. European Commission. 2015. “Gender balance on corporate boards”. <>. Accessed October 10, 2016. Fowler, Roger. 1994 (3rd edition). Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London and New York: Routledge. Freedman, Eric, Fico, Frederick and Brad Love. 2008. “Male and Female Sources in Newspaper Coverage of Male and Female Candidates in US Senate Races in 2004”. Journal of Women Politics & Policy 30 (1). 57–76 Gans, Herbert. 2004. Deciding What’s News. A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time (25th Anniversary Edition). Evanston, IL: North-western University Press. Gidengil, Elisabeth and Joanna Everitt. 2003. “Talking tough: gender and reported speech in campaign news coverage”. Political Communication 20: 209–232. Global Media Monitoring Project. 2015. GMMB Global Report. Hinnosaar, Marit. 2017. “Gender Inequality in New Media: Evidence from Wikipedia”. <>. Accessed January 4, 2017. Irvin, Mariah. 2013. “Women in TV broadcast news: reporters and sources in hard news stories”. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 4 (1): 39–47. Kitzinger, Jenny, Chimba, Mwenya Diana, Williams, Andy, Haran, Joan and Tammy Boyce. 2008. “Gender, stereotypes and expertise in the press: how newspapers represent female and male scientists” [Project Report]. UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology (UKRC) and Cardiff University. Liebler, Carol and Susan Smith. 1997. “Tracking gender differences: a comparative analysis of network correspondents and their sources”. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 41: 58–68. Popa, Dorin and Delia Gavriliu. 2015. “Gender Representations and Digital Media”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 180: 1199 – 1206. Popp, Danielle, Roxanne Donovan, Mary Crawford, Kerry Marsh and Melanie Peele. 2003. “Gender, race, and speech style stereotypes”. Sex Roles 48 (7/8): 317–325. Reuters. 2008. Reuters Handbook of Journalism. <>. Accessed January 4, 2017. Silver, Diane. 1986. “A comparison of newspaper coverage of male and female officials in Michigan”. Journalism Quarterly 63 (1): 144–149. The European Women’s Lobby. 2017. <>. Accessed March 6, 2018. The Guardian and Observer Style Guide. 2015. <>. Accessed October 25, 2016. The Times. 2014a. “Pistorius was ‘heartbroken man who cried 80 per cent of the time’”. <>. Accessed May 8, 2014. The Times. 2014b. ‘You will live to regret appointing Juncker, Cameron tells EU leaders’. < >. Accessed June 27, 2014. The Times. 2014c. ‘US Coast Guard resumes search for missing sailors’. <>. Accessed May 20, 2014. Tuchman, Gaye, Daniels, Arlene and James Benet (eds.). 1978. Hearth and Home: Images of Women in the Mass Media. New York: Oxford University Press. Turk, Judy. 1987. “Sex-role stereotyping in writing the news”. Journalism Quarterly 64 (2): 613–617. UN Women. 2015. “Progress for women in news media grinds to a halt” [press release]. <>. Accessed March 6, 2018. Zoch, Lynn and Judy Turk. 1998. “Women making news: gender as a variable in source selection and use”. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75 (4): 762–775.
dc.journal.titleMiscelánea: A Journal of English and American Studies
dc.rightsAtribución 3.0 España
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access
dc.subject.keywordJournalistic Studies
dc.subject.keywordMedia Coverage
dc.subject.keywordLinguistic Stereotypes
dc.subject.keywordSource of information
dc.subject.keywordEstudios periodísticos
dc.subject.keywordCobertura mediática
dc.subject.keywordEstereotipos lingüísticos
dc.subject.keywordFuente de información
dc.subject.ucmFilología inglesa
dc.subject.unesco57 Lingüística
dc.subject.unesco5505.10 Filología
dc.titleGender asymmetries in news reports
dc.typejournal article
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
664.8 KB
Adobe Portable Document Format