High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

dc.contributor.authorAntoranz Canales, Pedro
dc.contributor.authorBarrio Uña, Juan Abel
dc.contributor.authorContreras González, José Luis
dc.contributor.authorFonseca González, Mª Victoria
dc.contributor.authorLópez Moya, Marcos
dc.contributor.authorMiranda Pantoja, José Miguel
dc.contributor.authorNieto, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorSatalecka, Konstanzja
dc.contributor.authorScapin, Valeria
dc.description© ESO, 2012. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN, the Swiss National Fund SNF, and the Spanish MICINN is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Marie Curie program, by the CPAN CSD2007-00042 and MultiDark CSD2009-00064 projects of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio 2010 programme, by grant DO02-353 of the Bulgarian NSF, by grant 127740 of the Academy of Finland, by the YIP of the Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, by the DFG Cluster of Excellence “Origin and Structure of the Universe”, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, and by the Polish MNiSzW grant 745/N-HESSMAGIC /2010/0. We thank R. Bühler, L. Costamante and B. Giebels for providing H.E.S.S. and multi-wavelength data. We also thank the anonymous referee for useful comments which helped to improve the manuscript.
dc.description.abstractContext. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H. E. S. S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H. E. S. S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE gamma-emission. During the outburst, the VHE gamma-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of similar to 7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims. We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods. Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results. The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 +/- 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H. E. S. S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source extending the light curve derived by H. E. S. S. after the outburst. Finally, we find night-by-night variability with a maximal amplitude of a factor three to four and an intranight variability in one of the nights (MJD 53 945) with a similar amplitude.
dc.description.departmentDepto. de Estructura de la Materia, Física Térmica y Electrónica
dc.description.facultyFac. de Ciencias Físicas
dc.description.sponsorshipGerman BMBF
dc.description.sponsorshipGerman MPG
dc.description.sponsorshipItalian INFN
dc.description.sponsorshipSwiss National Fund SNF
dc.description.sponsorshipSpanish MICINN
dc.description.sponsorshipMarie Curie program
dc.description.sponsorshipSpanish Consolider-Ingenio 2010 programme
dc.description.sponsorshipBulgarian NSF
dc.description.sponsorshipAcademy of Finland
dc.description.sponsorshipYIP of the Helmholtz Gemeinschaft
dc.description.sponsorshipDFG Cluster of Excellence “Origin and Structure of the Universe”
dc.description.sponsorshipDFG Collaborative Research Centers
dc.description.sponsorshipPolish MNiSzW
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dc.journal.titleAstronomy & Astrophysics
dc.publisherEDP Sciencies
dc.relation.projectIDCPAN CSD2007-00042
dc.relation.projectID745/N-HESSMAGIC /2010/0
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access
dc.subject.keywordTEV Gamma-Rays
dc.subject.keywordExtragalactic Background Light
dc.subject.keywordAtmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
dc.subject.keywordMultiwavelength Observations
dc.subject.ucmElectrónica (Física)
dc.subject.ucmFísica nuclear
dc.subject.unesco2202.03 Electricidad
dc.subject.unesco2207 Física Atómica y Nuclear
dc.titleHigh zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope
dc.typejournal article
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