The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: measuring precise radial velocities in the near infrared: the example of the super-Earth CD Cet b

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The high-resolution, dual channel, visible and near-infrared spectrograph CARMENES offers exciting opportunities for stellar and exoplanetary research on M dwarfs. In this work we address the challenge of reaching the highest radial velocity precision possible with a complex, actively cooled, cryogenic instrument, such as the near-infrared channel. We describe the performance of the instrument and the work flow used to derive precise Doppler measurements from the spectra. The capability of both CARMENES channels to detect small exoplanets is demonstrated with the example of the nearby M5.0 V star CD Cet (GJ 1057), around which we announce a super-Earth (4.0 ± 0.4 M_(⊕)) companion on a 2.29 d orbit.
© ESO 2020. Artículo firmado por 29 autores. We thank the referee for her/his suggestions that have certainly improved this manuscript. We thank the whole team at CAHA, because their work during day and night time makes our science with CARMENES possible: Jesús Aceituno, Belén Arroyo, Antonio Barón Carreño, Daniel Benítez, Gilles Bergond, Enrique de Guindos, Enrique de Juan, Alba Fernández, Roberto Fernández González, David Galadí-Enriquez, Eulalia Gallego, Joaquín García de la Fuente, Vicente Gómez Galera, José Góngora Rueda, Ana Guijarro, Jens Helmling, Israel Hermelo, Luis Hernández Castaño, Francisco Hernández Hernando, Juan F. López Salas, Héctor Magán Medinabeitia, Julio Marn´ Molina, Pablo Martín, David Maroto Fernández, Francisco Márquez Sánchez, Santos Pedraz, Rubén P. Hedrosa, Miguel Á. Peñalver, Manuel Pineda Puente, Santiago Reinhart Franca, and José I. Vico Linares. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the German MaxPlanck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011- 02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-PlanckInstitut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Program and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of BadenWürttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (INTA-CSIC). We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program via the ERC Advanced Grant Origins 83 24 28, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through project RE 1664/14-1, the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the European FEDER/ERF funds through projects AYA2018-84089, ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, AYA2015-69350-C3-2- P, the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA program.
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