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Dinámicas y determinantes del fortalecimiento de la asociatividad rural: el caso de Colombia

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2023
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Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Escuela de Estudios Cooperativos
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La asociatividad rural es clave para el desarrollo del campo, permitiendo a los productores rurales, a través de la acción colectiva, aprovechar economías de escala para mejorar su acceso a mercados, información, tecnología y apoyos. A pesar de su relevancia, en países como Colombia, existe poca información sobre las características y necesidades de este tipo de organizaciones, lo cual dificulta el diseño de intervenciones de política acordes a las necesidades reales, al igual que la medición del impacto de estas sobre las organizaciones beneficiarias. En este artículo realizamos un diagnóstico detallado de los cambios en las condiciones productivas, comerciales, financieras, organizacionales y administrativas de 54 organizaciones beneficiarias de un programa de fortalecimiento técnico y socioempresarial en Colombia. Estimamos un modelo probabilístico para identificar las características organizacionales que aumentan la probabilidad de observar mayores mejoras. Los resultados evidencian aumentos significativos en el nivel de maduración de las organizaciones, sobre todo en las capacidades productivas y comerciales, precisamente en las cuales se evidenciaban las mayores debilidades iniciales. Encontramos que ser una asociación, tener a una mujer como líder, y tener más años de constituida, aumenta la probabilidad de observar mayores mejoras. Identificamos, además, los procesos específicos del funcionamiento de las organizaciones que mejoran tras el fortalecimiento, y las actividades del programa que potencialmente explican cada mejora. De esta contribuimos a entender los mecanismos que explican el fortalecimiento efectivo de la asociatividad rural.
Rural associativity is key for rural development, allowing producers, through collective action, to profit from economies of scale to improve their access to markets, information, technology, and support. Despite its relevance, there is little information on the characteristics and needs of rural producer organizations in Colombia. In this article, we elaborate a detailed productive, commercial, financial, organizational, and administrative diagnosis of 54 organizations in Colombia that received a process of technical and business strengthening. We estimate a probabilistic model to identify the organizational characteristics that increase the probability of observing greater improvements. The results show significant increases in the level of maturation of the organizations, especially in their productive and commercial capacities, precisely in which the greatest initial weaknesses were evident. We found that being an association, having a woman as a leader, and having been established for more years, increases the probability of observing greater improvements. We also identify the specific processes of organizational functioning that improve after strengthening and the program activities that potentially explain each improvement. Our results contribute to understanding the mechanisms that explain the effective strengthening of rural associativity.
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