The new SI and the fundamental constants of nature

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The launch in 2019 of the new international system of units is an opportunity to highlight the key role that the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry play in our lives and in all the processes of basic research, industry and commerce. The main objective of these notes is to present the new SI in an accessible way for a wide audience. After reviewing the fundamental constants of nature and its universal laws, the new definitions of SI units are presented using, as a unifying principle, the discrete nature of energy, matter and information in these universal laws. The new SI system is here to stay: although the experimental realizations may change due to technological improvements, the definitions will remain unaffected. Quantum metrology is expected to be one of the driving forces to achieve new quantum technologies of the second generation.
© 2020 IOP Publishing. These notes are the result of several lectures given during 2017, 2018 and 2019. I would like to thank the organizers Jose Manuel Bernabe and Jose angel Robles from Centro Espanol de Metrologia (CEM) for their kind invitation to the 6<SUP>o</SUP> Congreso Espanol de Metrologia (2017), to 8<SUP>o</SUP> Seminario Intercongresos de Metrologia (2018) and the Congreso del 30 Aniversario del CEM (2019); to Alberto Galindo and Arturo Romero from Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de Espana for their kind invitation to Ciclo Ciencia para Todos (2018) and Jornada sobre 'La revision del Sistema Internacional de Unidades, (SI). Un gran paso para la ciencia' (2019); to Federico Finkel and Piergiulio Tempesta for their kind invitation to the homage of Artemio Gonzalez Lopez on the occasion of his 60th anniversary. MAM-D acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MINECO, FIS 2017-91460-EXP, PGC2018-099169-B-I00 FIS-2018 and the CAM research consortium QUITEMAD+, Grant S2018-TCS-4243. The research of MAM-D has been supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Office through Grant No. W911N F-14-1-0103.
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