Multiple water band detections in the CARMENES near-infrared transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b

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Aims. We explore the capabilities of CARMENES for characterizing hot-Jupiter atmospheres by targeting multiple water bands, in particular, those at 1.15 and 1.4 µm. Hubble Space Telescope observations suggest that this wavelength region is relevant for distinguishing between hazy/cloudy and clear atmospheres. Methods. We observed one transit of the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b with CARMENES. Telluric and stellar absorption lines were removed using Sysrem, which performs a principal component analysis including proper error propagation. The residual spectra were analysed for water absorption with cross-correlation techniques using synthetic atmospheric absorption models. Results. We report a cross-correlation peak at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 6.6, revealing the presence of water in the transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b. The absorption signal appeared slightly blueshifted at –3.9 ± 1.3 km s−1 . We measured the individual cross correlation signals of the water bands at 1.15 and 1.4 µm, finding cross-correlation peaks at SNRs of 4.9 and 4.4, respectively. The 1.4 µm feature is consistent with that observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. Conclusions. The water bands studied in this work have been mainly observed in a handful of planets from space. The ability of also detecting them individually from the ground at higher spectral resolution can provide insightful information to constrain the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. Although the current multiband detections can not yet constrain atmospheric haze models for HD 189733 b, future observations at higher signal-to-noise ratio could provide an alternative way to achieve this aim.
© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 30 autores. We thank M. Brogi and the GIANO team for providing their p − T profile and answering our questions regarding their work. We thank J. Birkby for helpful discussions regarding the use of Sysrem. We also thank J. Hoeijmakers for the kind advises regarding the analysis of the data. F.J.A.- F. and I.S. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 694513. CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through European Regional Fund (FEDER/ERF), the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, the state of Baden-Württemberg, the German Science Foundation (DFG), and the Junta de Andalucía, with additional contributions by the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología, and the Centro Astronómico HispanoAlemán). Financial support was also provided by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid, the Spanish Ministerios de Ciencia e Innovación and of Economía y Competitividad, the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER/ERF), the Agencia estatal de investigación, and the Fondo Social Europeo under grants ESP2014-54362-P, AYA2011-30147-C03- 01, -02, and -03, AYA2012-39612-C03-01, ESP2013-48391-C4-1-R, ESP2014– 54062–R, ESP 2016–76076–R, and BES–2015–074542. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max–Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía. We thank the anonymous referee for their insightful comments, which contributed to improve the quality of the manuscript.
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