Publication: CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs V. Luminosities, colours, and spectral energy distributions
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Context. The relevance of M dwarfs in the search for potentially habitable Earth-sized planets has grown significantly in the last years. Aims. In our on-going effort to comprehensively and accurately characterise confirmed and potential planet-hosting M dwarfs, in particular for the CARMENES survey, we have carried out a comprehensive multi-band photometric analysis involving spectral energy distributions, luminosities, absolute magnitudes, colours, and spectral types, from which we have derived basic astrophysical parameters. Methods. We have carefully compiled photometry in 20 passbands from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, and combined it with the latest parallactic distances and close-multiplicity information, mostly from Gaia DR2, of a sample of 2479 K5 V to L8 stars and ultracool dwarfs, including 2210 nearby, bright M dwarfs. For this, we made extensive use of Virtual Observatory tools. Results. We have homogeneously computed accurate bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures of 1843 single stars, derived their radii and masses, studied the impact of metallicity, and compared our results with the literature. The over 40 000 individually inspected magnitudes, together with the basic data and derived parameters of the stars, individual and averaged by spectral type, have been made public to the astronomical community. In addition, we have reported 40 new close multiple systems and candidates (ρ < 3.3 arcsec) and 36 overluminous stars that are assigned to young Galactic populations. Conclusions. In the new era of exoplanet searches around M dwarfs via transit (e.g. TESS, PLATO) and radial velocity (e.g. CARMENES, NIRPS+HARPS), this work is of fundamental importance for stellar and therefore planetary parameter determination.
© 2020 ESO. We thank the anonymous referee for the comments that helped to improve the quality of this paper, and also E. E. Mamajek and E. Gaidos for their valuable insights and suggestions. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Insitut für Astrophysik Göttingen,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. This work was partly financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through grants AYA2016-79425- C3-1/2/3-P and BES-2017-080769, and by NASA through grant NNX17AG24G. C.C., F.J.A.P., R.D., and G.H. compiled data for this work during their MSc theses at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. This publication made use of VOSA and the Filter Profile Service, developed and maintained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory through grant AYA2017-84089, the SIMBAD database, the Aladin sky atlas, and the VizieR catalogue access tool developed at CDS, Strasbourg Observatory, France, and the Python libraries Matplotlib, NumPy, SciPy and collection of software packages AstroPy.