Detection of Fe and evidence for TiO in the dayside emission spectrum of WASP-33b

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Context. Theoretical studies predict the presence of thermal inversions in the atmosphere of highly irradiated gas giant planets. Recent observations have identified these inversion layers. However, the role of different chemical species in their formation remains unclear. Aims. We search for the signature of the thermal inversion agents TiO and Fe in the dayside emission spectrum of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-33b. Methods. The spectra were obtained with CARMENES and HARPS-N, covering different wavelength ranges. Telluric and stellar absorption lines were removed with SYSREM. We cross-correlated the residual spectra with model spectra to retrieve the signals from the planetary atmosphere. Results. We find evidence for TiO at a significance of 4.9σ with CARMENES. The strength of the TiO signal drops close to the secondary eclipse. No TiO signal is found with HARPS-N. An injection-recovery test suggests that the TiO signal is below the detection level at the wavelengths covered by HARPS-N. The emission signature of Fe is detected with both instruments at significance levels of 5.7σ and 4.5σ, respectively. By combining all observations, we obtain a significance level of 7.3σ for Fe. We find the TiO signal at K_(p )= 248.0^(+2.0)_(−2.5) km s^(−1), which is in disagreement with the Fe detection at K_(p) = 225.0^(+4.0)_(−3.5) km s^(−1). The Kp value for Fe is in agreement with prior investigations. The model spectra require different temperature profiles for TiO and Fe to match the observations. We observe a broader line profile for Fe than for TiO. Conclusions. Our results confirm the existence of a temperature inversion layer in the planetary atmosphere. The observed K_(p) offset and different strengths of broadening in the line profiles suggest the existence of a TiO-depleted hot spot in the planetary atmosphere.
© ESO 2021. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. We acknowledge financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the priority program SPP 1992 “Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets” (RE 1664/16-1), the Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars” (RE 1664/21-1), and grant CA 1795/3, the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, PID2019-110689RB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (832428), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. This work is based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
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